J- Ranula Quick Reference: A retention cyst found under the tongue on either

8 side of the frenum.

g Advanced Reference: Caused by the sublingual duct or mucous glands

^ becoming obstructed.

j| Rash Quick Reference: Temporary eruption or discolouration of the skin.

S. Advanced Reference: Often associated with allergy, infection, fever, o reaction, etc.

g Ratchet Quick Reference: A toothed bar with an interlocking device.

8 Advanced Reference: The toothed bar of a ratchet can be found on one side of the handles of artery forceps. The other side contains the corresponding

Receptor tooth that locks into place when applied. Artery forceps are stored and passed to the surgeon on the first ratchet. This allows maximum dexterity for the surgeon when applying an artery forceps during an emergency bleeding situation. The ratchet gives adequate strength to the artery forceps to remain in situ. A number of additional instruments utilise ratchets, i.e. mouth gags.

Raynaud's disease Quick Reference: (ray-nards) Condition in which the fingers and toes become cold and white or blue when exposed to cold.

Advanced Reference: Occurs usually in young women. Produces numbness, tingling and can be painful. Also signified by becoming red when warmed and again can produce tingling and pain. The cause is spasm of the arterioles supplying the digits. There is no specific treatment although drugs and surgery are sometimes used. Surgery involves the interruption of the sympathetic nerves (sympathectomy).

Raytec Quick Reference: Often referred to as Raytec swabs.

Advanced Reference: The Raytec referred to within surgical swabs is the actual translucent lining through the middle of the swab. Its purpose is to highlight the swab on X-ray, should a swab be mislaid during a surgical procedure. Other similar materials are used in endotracheal (ET) tubes, ureteric stents, catheters. Essentially, it is a protective measure to ensure nothing is left inside the patient after procedures.

RDS Quick Reference: Respiratory distress syndrome.

Advanced Reference: Involves the development of dyspnoea soon after birth in premature babies and is characterised by chest retraction accompanied by cyanosis and grunting on expiration.

Reamer Quick Reference: Surgical instrument used in orthopaedics and dentistry.

Advanced Reference: Used for enlarging root canals in dentistry and clearing out the shaft of bones for prosthesis insertion, i.e. shaft of femur for hip replacement.

Receiver Quick Reference: A kidney-shaped dish. 7

Advanced Reference: A receiver is used during surgery to contain any patient fluids, dissected body tissue, etc. It is also a best practice to pass the surgical blade between the scrub practitioner and the surgeon in a receiver in an attempt to reduce injury to either professional. Generally speaking, receivers/kidney dishes can be used as a general-purpose container whether sterile or non-sterile.

Receptor Quick Reference: Nerve ending adapted to a particular kind of sensation or a chemical component of a living cell.

Advanced Reference: Receptors receive stimuli in order to bring about a reaction or change.

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