Advanced Reference: Classifying patients according to severity of injuries. Used in major accident scenes, accident and emergency (A&E) departments, etc.

Tricuspid Quick Reference: Having three cusps or flaps.

Advanced Reference: The tricuspid valve is situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.

Tricyclic antidepressants Quick Reference: (try-sice-lic) Class of antidepressant drugs.

Advanced Reference: These are used in more serious cases of depression. Side effects include arrhythmias, heart block and convulsions.

Tridil Quick Reference: Vasodilator drug.

Advanced Reference: Used to treat angina pectoris. Available in ampoules for injection/infusion as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN).

Trigeminal nerve Quick Reference: Fifth cranial nerve.

Advanced Reference: Sensory nerve of the face. It has three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, mandibular or first, second, third, as well as a motor branch which supplies the muscles used in chewing.

Trigeminy Quick Reference: (try-gem-ine) Irregular pulse or heartbeat.

Advanced Reference: Involves an ECG trace when there are three beats then a missed beat. Refers to heartbeats in groups of three, e.g. premature ectopics.

Trilene Quick Reference: (try-lean) Trichloroethylene. Volatile anaesthetic agent.

Advanced Reference: No longer available. Inhalation agent with analgesic properties once used regularly in anaesthetic practice, especially obstetrics, where it was also used during labour in a device called a Tritec. Not to be used with soda lime in a closed circuit as it produces toxic metabolites which cause cranial nerve damage. Used in industry as a dry-cleaning fluid and solvent.

Trimetaphan Quick Reference: (tri-met-a-fan) Drug that reduces BP. ry Advanced Reference: Technically a hypotensive agent with short duration.

< Used in many types of surgery to reduce BP. Alternative name is arfonad.

g Triple A Quick Reference: Refers to vascular surgical operation.

^ Advanced Reference: Term used to indicate an 'abdominal aortic

g. Trismus Quick Reference: Spasm of the jaw muscles.

o Advanced Reference: May be due to inflammation from a tooth abscess, throat infection or irritation of the cells controlling the muscles of the jaw

0 Trocar Quick Reference: Sharp instrument used for piercing a body cavity.


Advanced Reference: Used in conjunction with a cannula which is a shorter hollow tube fitting over the trocar so that the sharp end protrudes. When the trocar and cannula have been introduced, the trocar is withdrawn and fluid, air, etc. allowed to escape through the cannula. Used for hydrocele, pneumothorax, cystostomy, etc.

Trochanter Quick Reference: (troc-ant-er) Two large knobs at the upper end of the femur.

Advanced Reference: The lesser and greater trochanter, to which are attached various muscles acting on the hip.

Trochlea(r) Quick Reference: (troc-lia) Pulley shaped.

Advanced Reference: The trochlea. Can refer to the trochlear nerve which is the fourth cranial nerve and supplies the superior oblique eye muscle or the area involving the frontal bone through which the tendon of the superior oblique eye muscle passes.

Trouser graft Quick Reference: Synthetic vascular graft.

Advanced Reference: Y-shaped (inverted) synthetic vascular graft used to replace a portion of the aorta and femoral arteries.

Trypsin Quick Reference: A digestive enzyme.

Advanced Reference: Trypsin converts protein into amino acids. Trypsinogen is secreted in the pancreas and is converted in the intestine into active trypsin.

Tubal ligation Quick Reference: Surgical female sterilisation.

Advanced Reference: Involves interruption of fallopian tube continuity by excising a segment of each tube followed by ligation of each free end. May be done laparoscopically, open surgical method or involve clipping of the tubes so patency is lost.

Tubercle Quick Reference: A small lump.

Advanced Reference: Usually refers to a prominence on a bone but also indicates the lesion produced by the tuberculosis (TB) micro-organism,

Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis Quick Reference: Infectious disease caused by Myobacterium tuberculosis. 7

Advanced Reference: The disease process destroys the tissues involved, g lungs being the most common but can manifest in numerous parts of the |>

body. Acquired primarily via breathing. Treatment at one time was revo- £

lutionised by the discovery of streptomycin. Immunisation is with the ®

Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine, made from an attenuated strain ■!

of Myobacterium bovis. g o

Tuberosity Quick Reference: A protuberance on a bone. g>

Advanced Reference: The tibial tuberosity is a raised surface on the tibia is and the radial tuberosity is a protuberance on the radial shaft into which S. the tendon of the biceps muscle inserts.

Tube support

Tube support Quick Reference: Device for supporting anaesthetic tubing during surgery.

Advanced Reference: Designed to keep the tubing away from the patient's face, etc. and avoid kinking as well as facilitating necessary direction, tube supports either attach to the table end or slide under the table mattress.

Tubigrip Quick Reference: Type of cylindrical support bandage.

Advanced Reference: Supporting those type of bandage or dressing used as support following injury, post-operatively and intra-operatively for certain procedures.

Tubocurarine Quick Reference: Non-depolarising muscle relaxant.

Advanced Reference: Tubocurarine is the active principle of Curare, a South American arrow poison and original non-depolarising muscle relaxant used in anaesthesia. A pure alkaloid D-tubocurarine (DTC) was isolated in 1935. Also known as tubarine.

Tubule Quick Reference: Small tube.

Advanced Reference: The collecting and conveying tubules in the kidney medulla which convey urine to the kidney pelvis.

Tulle gras Quick Reference: (tul-grar) A net of pliant material impregnated with soft paraffin.

Advanced Reference: May also be mixed with ointment containing antiseptic or antibiotic. Used as a dressing for raw surfaces such as burns, scalds or ulcers.

Tumour Quick Reference: Any swelling.

Advanced Reference: Usually used to mean a benign or malignant growth. A new growth is called a neoplasm.

Tunica Quick Reference: A tunic or coat, covering.

Advanced Reference: The lining of a vessel, intima as with blood vessels.

Tuohy Quick Reference: (tu-e) Epidural needle.

Advanced Reference: Epidural needle with an oblique bevelled tip and 1-cm markings (Alfred Lee type) designed to indicate the depth of the epidural space.

Turbinates Quick Reference: Bones of the nasal cavity.

Advanced Reference: Three scroll-shaped bones, superior, middle and inferior, that help form the walls of the nasal cavity.

Turgid Quick Reference: Inflated, enlarged.

Advanced Reference: Indicates distention, congestion or being swollen.

TUR hook Quick Reference: Piece of equipment used in endoscopic genitourinary (GU) procedures.


Advanced Reference: Intended to be a support for light cables, diathermy leads, irrigation tubing during TURP, etc. Commonly suspends from ceiling or operating light but designs are available that clamp to the table.

TUR syndrome Quick Reference: Condition/syndrome sometimes found following TURP.

Advanced Reference: Due to absorption of irrigating fluid (glycine) via the open prostatic vessels. Causes IV overload and hyponatraemia due to the dilutional effect on the circulation. Signs and symptoms include bradycardia, hypotension, convulsions, confusion and dyspnoea.

Tympanic membrane Quick Reference: (tim-pan-ic) The ear drum.

Advanced Reference: A greyish membrane which detects sound vibrations.

Tympanoplasty Quick Reference: (tim-pan-o-plasty) Repair of the ear drum.

Advanced Reference: Generally any reconstructive operation on the middle ear with the intention of improving hearing.

Typhus Quick Reference: An infection spread by lice.

Advanced Reference: Primarily a disease of dirt caused by Rickettsiae.

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