Tidal volume forearm. The tibia is much more heavily built as it carries all the body weight.

Tidal volume Quick Reference: Volume of air that moves into the lungs with each inspiration.

Advanced Reference: Tidal volume (TV) is used in relation to minute volume (MV) and respiratory rate (RR). MV = TV X RR.

Tincture Quick Reference: An alcoholic solution of a drug/medicine, etc. Advanced Reference: Commonly seen in theatres as tincture of iodine, alcoholic chlorhexidine (hibitane), etc., more so than drug preparations.

Tinnitus Quick Reference: (tin-nit-tus) Noises in the ears.

Advanced Reference: May be buzzing, ringing, hissing, whistling and may follow disease of the auditory nerve or cochlea.

Tissue fluid Quick Reference: Also termed extracellular fluid.

Advanced Reference: Watery fluid percolating all the minute spaces of/ between the body cells.

Tissue forceps Quick Reference: An instrument used for grasping tissue during surgery.

Advanced Reference: There are numerous types and design, among the most commonly used are Allis, Lanes, Babcock and Duvals.

Titanium Quick Reference: Grey metallic element.

Advanced Reference: Used in many implants such as hips. Has many desirable properties, i.e. low solubility, strong, non-toxic, non-carcinogenic and non-irritant.

TIVA Quick Reference: Total IV anaesthesia. Technique which uses only IV drugs.

Advanced Reference: Aimed at avoiding the use of inhalation agents and usually given via infusion. Has the benefits of avoiding pollution and the unwanted effects of inhalation agents.

Tobramycin Quick Reference: Antibiotic. Tobralex.

Advanced Reference: Effective against many forms of bacteria as well as a range of other micro-organisms.

Tomography Quick Reference: (tomogram) X-ray intended to show structures lying in a selected plane on the body.

Advanced Reference: Can involve the use of X-rays or ultrasound waves in order to view a layer of body tissue irrespective of depth.

Tonic Quick Reference: Refers to tension or pressure.

Advanced Reference: Tonicity can be applied to fluids in terms of their osmotic pressure, also muscles when they are in a state of continuous contraction as opposed to the normal situation of contraction and relaxation.


Tonsils Quick Reference: A mass of lymphoid tissue.

Advanced Reference: Two lymph glands situated in the back of the throat between the pillars of fauces which forms part of Waldeyer's Ring.

Topical anaesthesia Quick Reference: Surface application of LA.

Advanced Reference: Applied to skin, mucous membrane (pharynx, nasal passages, urethra, conjunctiva), etc. via direct application, swabs, pastes, sprays.

Torecan Quick Reference: Proprietary anti-emetic.

Advanced Reference: Used to relieve nausea and vomiting. Torecan is a preparation of thiethylperazine.

Toronto frame Quick Reference: Piece of patient positioning equipment.

Advanced Reference: Also referred to as the Montreal frame among other descriptions. Used as support with the patient laying face-down on the frame during spinal surgery.

Tourniquet Quick Reference: (turn-i-kay) A constrictive band placed tightly around a limb to stop the flow of blood.

Advanced Reference: The intention is to compress both arteries and veins while the purpose can be varied, i.e. to stop arterial bleeding from a wound, prevent the spread of venom or poison, or provide a surgeon with a bloodless field. In relation to theatres, numerous designs exist and guidelines with regard to pressures and times vary according to local policy. The position, pressure being used and time duration applied are of utmost importance irrespective of purpose.

Toxaemia Quick Reference: Blood poisoning.

Advanced Reference: This occurs due to an underlying bacterial infection within the body.

Toxin Quick Reference: A poison. Toxic means poisonous.

Advanced Reference: Toxicology is the study of poisons and their actions. The source of the toxin may be varied but used commonly to indicate those of bacterial or animal origin. Toxoid refers to modified bacterial toxins that have lost their poisonous properties but can still act as antigens to provoke the formation of antibodies but does not produce symptoms of the disease. Tetanus toxoid is used to induce immunity to tetanus.

TPN Quick Reference: Total parenteral nutrition.

Advanced Reference: Involves the giving of nutrition via a vein in cases where the patient is unable to take or absorb food by the enteral route because of obstruction, bowel removal, unconsciousness/coma, etc.

Trachea Quick Reference: The windpipe.

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