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Cerebellum

Cerebellum Quick Reference: The hindbrain.

Advanced Reference: Situated behind the brain stem and is concerned with balance, muscle tone and co-ordination of movement.

Cerebrovascular accident Quick Reference: Referred to as a stroke or CVA.

Advanced Reference: Caused by a haemorrhage, thrombus or embolus where the patient may become paralysed on one side.

Cerebrum Quick Reference: The largest part of the brain.

Advanced Reference: Includes the two linked cerebral hemispheres but sometimes used to indicate the brain as a whole.

Cervical Quick Reference: Of the neck.

Advanced Reference: Pertaining to the neck region, e.g. cervical vertebrae/spine.

Cervical smear Quick Reference: A special test for women to diagnose cervical carcinoma.

Advanced Reference: The removal of cells from the neck of the womb which are then stained and examined under a microscope. This test is important for the diagnosis of malignant and pre-malignant cells before symptoms develop.

Cetrimide Quick Reference: A detergent with antiseptic properties.

Advanced Reference: Cetrimide is often combined with the antiseptic chlorhexidine and used as a skin preparation.

Chemotherapy Quick Reference: A chemical agent used to arrest the progress of or eradicate a disease.

Advanced Reference: This group of agents can be administered orally, intramuscularly or intravenous (IV). They are intended to have a desired effect on the diseased area without causing irreversible injury to healthy tissue. Involves mainly the sulphonamide and cytotoxic groups.

Cheyne-Stokes respiration Quick Reference: A pattern of breathing found in patients in a deep coma or dying.

Advanced Reference: Instead of a normal breathing rhythm, breaths

N become deeper/shallower until the breathing stops, then the cycle is

■g Chin support Quick Reference: Device used to support the chin during general anaesthesia (GA).

g Advanced Reference: Involves a spatula or similar implement used in

| conjunction with a harness to support the jaw and maintain the airway

S. during spontaneous breathing mask anaesthesia. Mostly obsolete now

Q due to the use of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA).

'g Chlamydia Quick Reference: (clam-id-ea) Type of micro-organism. S. Advanced Reference: Classified as a bacteria but has virus-like behav iour in that it can only multiply within cells. Responsible for a number of

Cholesterol diseases, e.g. trachoma, urethritis in men but predominantly associated with cervicitis and salpingitis in women which can lead to infertility. The organism is sensitive to tetracyclines and erythromycin.

Chloral hydrate Quick Reference: (cloral) Sedative and hypnotic.

Advanced Reference: Used orally to induce sleep, mainly with children and the elderly. Can also be administered rectally.

Chloramphenicol Quick Reference: (clor-am-fen-icol) A broad-spectrum antibiotic, popular in ophthalmics.

Advanced Reference: It is administrated topically in the form of eye drops, ear drops, cream or in tablet form.

Chlorhexidine Quick Reference: An antimicrobial solution used to prevent bacteria multiplying.

Advanced Reference: Chlorhexidine forms the basis of handwashing solution and skin preparation fluid within the theatre. It is often seen in a pink colour form that can be applied to the skin. Once applied, if an alcohol based solution, the skin should be allowed to dry preventing any pooling of the solution, which could cause a diathermy risk to the patient.

Chlorine Quick Reference: An amine found in the body and present in egg yolk and fat. Also a vitamin of the B complex.

Advanced Reference: Plays an important part in the metabolism of fats and the functioning of the nervous system in the form of acetylcholine.

Chloroform Quick Reference: A colourless volatile liquid once used for GA.

Advanced Reference: Administered as an anaesthetic inhalation agent but no longer in use as it was known to cause heart problems, liver damage and pollution.

Cholangiogram Quick Reference: X-ray of the biliary tract.

Advanced Reference: The introduction of a radio-opaque dye to define the biliary tree and surrounding structures.

Cholecystectomy Quick Reference: Surgical removal of the gall bladder.

Advanced Reference: Usually performed for the removal of symptomatic gall stones and performed most commonly through a right subcostal (Kochers) incision or increasingly via a laparoscopic technique. ^

Cholecystitis Quick Reference: (colly-sist-itis) Inflammation of the gall J

bladder. s

Advanced Reference: Acute pain radiating through to the back causing ~

nausea and vomiting usually due to a stone formation or stones lodged £

in the cystic duct. <b a

Cholestasis Quick reference: Stagnation of bile in the liver. °

Advanced Reference: Usually due to obstruction of the bile passages |1 and is a common cause of jaundice. ®

Cholesterol Quick Reference: Fat-like substance found in most tissues.

Cholinesterase

Advanced Reference: Blood contains about 0.2% cholesterol. Cholesterol is the main component of deposits in the lining of arteries and so associated with arteriosclerosis.

Cholinesterase Quick Reference: (cole-in-est-erase) Enzyme involved in the formation and destruction of acetylcholine.

Advanced Reference: Cholinesterase hydrolyses acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Has the same action on suxamethonium.

Chronic Quick Reference: A disease or condition of long duration.

Advanced Reference: Chronic conditions often have a gradual onset. Opposite of acute, which often has a rapid onset but of short duration. Examples would be chronic renal failure and acute renal failure.

Chyle Quick Reference: A milky fluid found in the lymphatic system.

Advanced Reference: The end product of digested fats which are absorbed through the lymph vessels in the intestinal wall.

Chyme Quick Reference: Partly digested stomach contents.

Advanced Reference: A semi-liquid acid mass of undigested food that passes into the small intestine.

Cilia Quick Reference: Fine hair-like structures.

Advanced Reference: Present on the surfaces of certain cells and with an undulating action sweeps matter along body passages, e.g. those of the air passages.

Circulation Quick Reference: The flow of blood through the arteries and veins around the body.

Advanced Reference: Indicates movement in a circular manner or circuit. Referred to generally as the systemic circulation but should include more accurately the pulmonary, portal, coronary and collateral circulations, each having a specific role. The pulmonary involves the passage of blood from the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery, lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary veins. The portal circulation is the passage of the blood from the alimentary tract, pancreas and spleen via J- the portal vein through the liver and into the hepatic veins. The coronary g circulation is the system of vessels which supply the heart muscle itself g while the collateral indicates the vessels which have the action of estab-

^ lishing a blood flow to an area when the main system fails. nt e

£ Circulator Quick Reference: Refers to the member of staff who provides for a. the scrub team during surgery. In USA termed scout. a Advanced Reference: Indicates someone who moves around and within an activity as opposed to the role of the scrub assistant who by nature is aer restricted to within the aseptic boundary.

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