N

Iatrogenic Quick Reference: Caused by treatment or diagnosis.

Advanced Reference: A disorder caused by physician or during the course of treatment within a health care facility.

Idiopathic Quick Reference: Of unknown causation.

Advanced Reference: A term applied to diseases when their cause is unknown or of spontaneous origin.

I: E ratio Quick Reference: Inspiratory: expiratory ratio.

Advanced Reference: Refers to the ratio between inspiration and expiration usually when a patient is being mechanically ventilated. This is normally 1:2.

Ileostomy Quick Reference: An artificial opening between the ileum and the exterior (abdominal wall).

Advanced Reference: Created surgically in the right lower abdominal wall when the colon (large bowel) has been removed. Due to such causes as ulcerative colitis.

Ileum Quick Reference: A section of the small intestine.

Advanced Reference: Involves the last three-fifths of the small intestine between the jejunum above and the caecum below.

Ileus Quick Reference: An obstruction of the intestine.

Advanced Reference: Intestinal obstruction due to a number of causes including obliteration of the lumen by a tumour, strangulation, twisting or paralysis. Signs include abdominal distention and vomiting.

Iliac crest Quick Reference: Iliac is a suffix indicating the ilium. Crest is a ridge or protuberance, usually of a bone.

Advanced Reference: The area of the upper elevated margins of the ilium but refers to the external bony prominence of the outer pelvis felt under the skin and used regularly as landmarks for surgery, etc.

Image intensifier Quick Reference: Also referred to as the 'C-arm'. A mobile X-ray machine.

Immobilisation

Advanced Reference: Used in theatres for situations other than the need for just X-ray pictures, i.e. orthopaedics being the most common. It amplifies the fluoroscopic optical image and projects it on to a television screen. The shape enables access to difficult areas during surgery and can facilitate screening from anterior to lateral positions as well as being able to produce traditional X-ray films.

Immobilisation Quick Reference: Fixation of a body part.

Advanced Reference: Indicates the fixation of a body part so that it cannot move during or after surgery, as with the setting of a fracture.

Immunity Quick Reference: The process in the body of identifying and getting rid of invading organisms and foreign matter.

Advanced Reference: The word indicates the resistance to subsequent attacks conferred by one attack of an infectious disease or by a simulated attack such as vaccination (immunisation). Immunology is the study of immunity and the body's defence system.

Immunosuppressants Quick Reference: Drugs used to inhibit the body's resistance to the presence of foreign bodies. Cyclosporin is an example.

Advanced Reference: Such drugs may be used to suppress tissue rejection following transplantation or donor grafting but then creates the risk of unopposed infection.

Impedance Quick Reference: It is the resistance of alternating current (AC) flow in an electrical circuit.

Advanced Reference: The unit of impedance is the ohm. Involves resistors and capacitors. Conductors are substances with low impedance and those with high impedance are known as insulators.

Implant Quick Reference: To set into (something).

Advanced Reference: Term often used to indicate a device set into the body. Examples are implantation of a joint, embryo implant into the uterus as in assisted fertility or radiological implant.

Imuran Quick Reference: Proprietary preparation of the cytotoxic drug

7 azathioprine.

g Advanced Reference: Used to suppress tissue rejection following donor

|> grafting or transplant surgery.

Ol c Incidence Quick Reference: Number of times an event occurs.

£ Advanced Reference: In epidemiology the number of new cases in a par-

Si ticular period.

a o o> Incident reporting Quick Reference: Written or verbal reporting of an event is or series of occurrences.

Advanced Reference: Refers to any event that is inconsistent with desired patient outcomes or routines within a health care setting.

Induction

Incision Quick Reference: A surgical cut into the body tissue using a scalpel and blade.

Advanced Reference: An incision is made into or over an operative site with the intention of providing access to underlying structures and organs etc. Some of the most common abdominal incisions are: Midline & Para-median for e.g. laparotomy, McBurney (Grid-Iron) for Appendicectomy; Sub-costal (Kochers) for Cholecystectomy; Pfannenstiel for Caesarean Section, Hysterectomy.

Incompatibility Quick Reference: Unable to co-exist.

Advanced Reference: In relation to tissue transplantation, there may be rejection because donor and recipient antibodies are incompatible.

Incontinence Quick Reference: Inability to control bladder or bowel.

Advanced Reference: Due to diseases of the nervous system and particularly in women, weakness of the muscles of the pelvic floor (stress incontinence). When control of both bladder and bowel is lost it is termed double incontinence.

Increment Quick Reference: To deliver small amounts of a total. To increase.

Advanced Reference: Used to describe the intermittent administration of drugs by small amounts (increments).

Incubator Quick Reference: Apparatus used to provide a controlled environment.

Advanced Reference: Involves the control of light, temperature, moisture, oxygen, etc., as used in laboratory cultivation of micro-organisms and the newborn.

Indicator tape Quick Reference: Refers to a number of colour-change tapes used in various sterilisation processes.

Advanced Reference: The most commonly used are those in steam and ethylene oxide sterilisation processes. They indicate exposure to the process rather than actual sterilisation by colour change.

Indigo-carmine Quick Reference: A dye used usually in a 0.4% solution. 7

Advanced Reference: Given intravenously (IV) for testing renal function ^

and for identifying vessels during certain types of surgery, i.e. thyroid; '■§

also used for confirming patency of fallopian tubes during hysterogram. £

Induce Quick Reference: To stimulate the start of an activity. J

Advanced Reference: It means to induce labour, to induce an abortion. «

An enzyme induces a metabolic activity. a en in

Induction Quick Reference: To begin or set in motion. g

Advanced Reference: Used commonly with reference to anaesthesia or g labour, i.e. to induce labour or anaesthesia.

Inert

Inert Quick Reference: Without any (chemical) action or reaction. Inert gases are present in air but appear to play no part in respiration.

Advanced Reference: Used in relation to implants and prosthesis made of 'inert' materials which indicates that they will cause no or little biological reaction, e.g. titanium joints, silicone catheters, etc.

Infarct (ion) Quick Reference: Blockage of a blood vessel on which part of an organ depends.

Advanced Reference: Infarction can lead to death and scarring of affected tissue with the segment lost being called an infarct. Found commonly in cardiac, mesenteric, tissue.

Infiltration Quick Reference: Indicates the injection of local anaesthetic (LA) into the subcutaneous and intradermal tissue.

Advanced Reference: Used for minor surgery solely as pain relief, for infiltration of the surgical incision to provide post-operative pain relief as well as a means of creating a bloodless field when the LA contains a vaso-constrictor such as adrenaline.

Inflammation Quick Reference: The local reaction of the body to damage caused by infection or injury.

Advanced Reference: Inflammation is the natural response to injury of almost any kind and is the first stage of healing. The classic signs are redness and swelling with heat and pain.

Infrared Quick Reference: Electromagnetic radiation beyond the red end of the spectrum.

Advanced Reference: Infrared is comprised of long invisible rays which are used therapeutically in numerous forms, mainly to produce heat in tissues. Classified as non-ionising radiation.

Infusion Quick Reference: Refers to the slow injection of fluids and/or medication.

Advanced Reference: The IV administration of fluids, usually with added drugs, under the influence of gravity, as opposed to a direct injection with a syringe.

Inguinal Quick Reference: (in-gwi-nal) Of the groin.

Advanced Reference: The inguinal region comprises the fold in front of the hip joint where the muscles of the abdomen and thigh meet. The part of the abdomen surrounding the inguinal canal, a common site of hernia.

! Inhalation Quick Reference: Method of introducing drugs into the body S. via the lungs.

o Advanced Reference: A number of methods are used, i.e. aerosol, spacer,

.j= nebuliser; in anaesthesia vaporisers are the common method of delivering (5 volatile agents.

0 Injection Quick Reference: The act of administering liquid into the body.

Intercurrent

Advanced Reference: Carried out usually with a syringe and needle via many routes; IV, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intra-dermal, intraosseous, etc.

Inoculation Quick Reference: Introduction of material, etc. into the tissues or culture medium.

Advanced Reference: In relation to tissues, inoculation usually indicates the introduction of a vaccine but with a culture medium involves the introduction of a micro-organism for propagation.

Inoperable Quick Reference: Term used with reference to surgery when a condition or disease has progressed too far and nothing further (surgically) can be done.

Advanced Reference: Most common example is when a procedure cannot continue or be attempted due spread of cancer.

Inotropic Quick Reference: Anything that effects the force of muscle contraction.

Advanced Reference: Usually applied to cardiac muscle. Drugs such as beta-blockers are said to be inotropic.

Institute of Operating Theatre Technicians (IOTT) Quick Reference:

Forerunner of Association of Operating Department Practitioners (AODP).

Advanced Reference: Prior to AODP and BAODA (British Association of Operating Department Assistants) IOTT was the representative professional body/organisation.

Insufflation Quick Reference: To blow air, gas, powder down a tube.

Advanced Reference: Indicates the blowing of air, etc. down a tube or into a body cavity; e.g. insufflating carbon dioxide (CO2) into the peritoneal cavity for laparoscopy or blowing gas through fallopian tubes to establish patency. An insufflator is used to deliver the gas, etc.

Insulin Quick Reference: A hormone found in the pancreas.

Advanced Reference: Insulin is released into the bloodstream where it promotes the uptake of glucose for use by the body cells. Without it, glucose is neither consumed as fuel nor adequately stored and accumulates in the blood.

Intensive care Quick Reference: Specialised hospital ward.

Advanced Reference: Specialised ward for patients requiring intensive care and treatment. In some instances also referred to as intensive therapy unit (ITU).

Intercostal Quick Reference: Indicates area between the ribs.

Advanced Reference: Used to describe the blood vessels, nerves and muscles lying between the ribs.

Intercurrent Quick Reference: Occurring during the progress of another.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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