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Hypothalamus procedures and spinal/epidural anaesthesia can be utilised for the same purpose.

Hypothalamus Quick Reference: Part of the brain that lies at the base, below the third ventricle and below the thalamus.

Advanced Reference: It controls the vegetative functions, such as body temperature, appetite, BP, fluid balance and sleep.

Hypothermia Quick Reference: (hi-po-thermia) A lowering of body temperature.

Advanced Reference: Body temperature below the normal range. Can be accidental, which occurs if normal homeostasis fails and heat loss exceeds heat production, or deliberately induced as for surgery in order to slow metabolism and the requirement for oxygen. Measured sometimes as mild, moderate and severe (deep). Said to become a clinical problem when the core temperature falls below 36°C.

Hypovolaemia Quick Reference: (hi-po-vol-eemia) Reduced quantity of blood.

Advanced Reference: Indicates a reduction in circulating blood volume usually due to bleeding (external or internal) causing a drop in BP and leading to hypovolaemic shock.

Hypoxia Quick Reference: Deficiency of oxygen in the tissues.

Advanced Reference: Related to anoxia in which tissues receive inadequate or literally no oxygen. Also hypoxia. All recognised clinically by the presence of cyanosis.

Hysterectomy Quick Reference: Surgical removal of the uterus.

Advanced Reference: Removal of the uterus; either via abdomen or vagina. Performed for a variety of reasons including cancer, bleeding, etc. The abdominal approach can involve various degrees of removal, including sub-total, total, pan and Wertheims, which is the removal of uterus, tubes, ovaries, upper part of vagina plus pelvic lymph glands.

Hysterogram Quick Reference: (his-ter-o-gram) X-ray examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes.

Advanced Reference: Also termed hysterosalpingogram and hysteros-alpingography. Involves injection of a contrast medium for X-ray of the uterus and fallopian tubes mostly to determine patency.

Hysteroscopy Quick Reference: Inspection of the uterus through a rigid telescope.

Advanced Reference: A gynaecological procedure that is used as a diagnostic tool to inspect the endometrial lining of the uterus. Great care must be taken to initially establish the depth (size of the uterus) by using

Hyoid (bone)

a uterine sound. Potential risk is to insert the telescope too far and puncture the fundus of the uterus.

Hysterotomy Quick Reference: Opening into the uterus.

Advanced Reference: Usually involves surgical opening into the uterus in order to remove a foetus.

Hyoid (bone) Quick Reference: (hi-oid) Small bone to which the tongue is attached.

Advanced Reference: Small U-shaped bone in the neck situated below the jaw and above the larynx to which many surrounding muscles are attached.

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