Advanced Reference: An image taken to show structures lying in a selected plane in the body.

Catabolism Quick Reference: A chemical breakdown of substances in the body.

Advanced Reference: A chemical process by which complex substances are broken down to form simpler substances with the release of energy.

Catalyst Quick Reference: (cat-a-list) Substance which brings about a chemical change.

Advanced Reference: A catalyst brings about a change without itself actually undergoing any change. Enzymes are examples of a catalyst.

Cataract Quick Reference: Opacity of the lens of the eye.

Advanced Reference: Causes dimness of vision and if not treated may lead to complete loss of vision. Involves removal of the lens and with it the ability to focus. Often an artificial lens is implanted in place of the natural one.

Catgut Quick Reference: A suture material made from the intestines of a sheep (no longer used since the outbreak of bovine spongiform enchep-halopathy (BSE)).

Advanced Reference: Suture or ligature material, woven into different strengths. It can be plain or treated with chromic acid to make chromic catgut which acts to extend its absorption.

Catheter Quick Reference: A tube designed for introduction into a body cavity, etc.

Advanced Reference: Often used interchangeably with cannula but while these tend to be shorter devices, catheters tend to be longer, an example is a bladder catheter. They can be made from plastic, rubber, silicone, etc.

Catheter mount Quick Reference: Anaesthetic adjunct.

Advanced Reference: Connecting tube which is inserted between the endotracheal (ET) tube and patients' breathing circuit.

Cation Quick Reference: Ion with a positive charge. J- Advanced Reference: Due to the positive charge, a cation moves

8 towards a cathode in the presence of an electric field.

^ Caudia equina Quick Reference: Terminal end of the spinal cord. c Advanced Reference: Tail-like appendage which contains the bundle of tm sacral and lumbar nerves.

® Cautery Quick Reference: An instrument used to seal a bleeding point c? during surgery.

Advanced Reference: A surgical instrument which applies heat to tissues to stop bleeding. May come in various forms, e.g. needle point, loop, knife or ball diathermy. Known as 'Buzz' or 'diathermy forceps'.


Cavity Quick Reference: A walled area within the body.

Advanced Reference: A confined well-defined space within the body, e.g. the chest cavity, abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity.

c.c. Quick Reference: Cubic centimetre.

Advanced Reference: As a measurement, millilitre (ml) is the more exact term.

CCF Quick Reference: Congestive cardiac failure.

Advanced Reference: Describes the state in which there is both right and left ventricular failure with a combination of systemic and pulmonary symptoms.

CDH Quick Reference: Congenital dislocation of the hip.

Advanced Reference: Deformity resulting from developmental abnormality. Involves failure in development and thus fit/seating of the head of the femur and acetabulum.

Cefotaxime Quick Reference: Broad-spectrum antibiotic. Proprietary preparation is called claforan.

Advanced Reference: One of the cephalosporins used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. Cefuroxime is also a cephalosporin and has similar actions and is used in the treatment of upper respiratory tract and urinary tract infections.

Cell Quick Reference: A single-cell unit from which the body is made.

Advanced Reference: A microscopic single-celled mass made up of protoplasm, a nucleus and cytoplasm, and is able to reproduce itself by mitosis.

Cellulitis Quick Reference: Inflammation of cellular tissue.

Advanced Reference: Commonly due to infection by streptococci from contaminated wounds. Treated with antibiotics and/or sulphonamides.

Celsius Quick Reference: Scale for measuring temperature.

Advanced Reference: Scale originally based on the melting point of ice which was 0° and the boiling point of water, taken to be 100°. Now in universal use and referred to as celsius or centigrade scale.

Cement Quick Reference: Refers to bone cement used in orthopaedic surgery.

Advanced Reference: Bone cement is not an adhesive but functions by filling up a space and so forming a better mechanical fit. Most common cements are acrylic. Prepared during the operation by mixing a liquid which contains the monomer and a stabiliser with a powder that includes a catalyst to initiate polymerisation. Also usually included are a radio-opaque material and an antibiotic. Quite commonly can cause a reaction which may lead to severe hypotension upon application.

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