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Tracheostomy

Advanced Reference: The trachea runs from the larynx downwards into the upper mediastinum and divides into the right and left main bronchi.

Tracheostomy Quick Reference: (track-e-ostomy) A surgical procedure for establishing an airway.

Advanced Reference: Involves entering the trachea through a hole made in the neck at approximately the level of the third tracheal ring. Carried out for numerous reasons, i.e. obstruction, long-term ventilation, laryn-gectomy, etc. followed by insertion of a tracheostomy tube which can be permanent or temporary depending on the cause.

Tracrium Quick Reference: Non-depolarising muscle relaxant.

Advanced Reference: Atracurium, muscle relaxant with short duration, useful with renal and liver failure patients as it does not require their function for elimination.

Train of four (ToF) Quick Reference: Refers to nerve stimulation with muscular blockade.

Advanced Reference: In relation to peripheral nerve stimulators, ToF is used to monitor the degree of neuromuscular block. The ToF ratio compares the fourth to first twitch produced by the stimulator.

Tramadol Quick Reference: Opioid analgesic, e.g. zydol.

Advanced Reference: Reported to have fewer of the typical opioid side effects, notably, less respiratory depression, reduced constipation action and less addiction potential.

Tranquillisers Quick Reference: Group of drugs used to sedate and allay anxiety.

Advanced Reference: Designed to have a general calming effect in numerous situations and conditions. They have been divided into a number of classes, the major being used to treat psychotic states and the minor in severe cases of anxiety and as aids to sleep. Minor tranquillisers are also known as anxiolytics and major drugs called antipsy-chotics or neuroleptics.

7 Transducer Quick Reference: Device that changes one energy form into e another.

o o Advanced Reference: Commonly used in theatre for invasive pressure

□l monitoring. Transducers convert one form of energy into another, i.e.

§ mechanical energy into an electrical impulse.

^ Transfusion Quick Reference: The transfer of blood. ® Advanced Reference: From one human to another through a vein. Used g> to replace actual volume or various blood products. Auto-transfusion is the is use of a persons' own blood. Exchange or replacement transfusion is the a. removal or replacement of all or most of a recipient's blood. Direct transfusion involves the direct transfer from donor to recipient.

Triage

Translucent Quick Reference: Shining, clear.

Advanced Reference: Any medium through which light can pass but in a diffused manner.

Transplantation Quick Reference: Transfer of tissue or organ from one subject to another unlike grafting which is used to indicate moving tissue from one part to another of the same person.

Advanced Reference: Transplantation is now regularly used for hearts, lungs, kidneys, pancreas, bone, cornea, etc. Donor being the source of the organ or part to be transplanted and recipient indicating the one receiving the donor part.

Transposition Quick Reference: A developmental fault in relation to the heart.

Advanced Reference: Involves the aorta arising from the right side of the heart instead of the left and the PA (pulmonary artery) from the left instead of the right. Dextrocardia involves a mirror image to normal with the apex of the heart being towards the right.

Trans-urethral resection of prostate Quick Reference: TURP, reduction or removal of the prostate gland via an endoscope.

Advanced Reference: Also termed trans-urethral retrograde prostatectomy. Involves the excision of the prostate using a resectoscope passed via the urethra into the bladder.

An alternative operation is open prostatectomy (retropubic and trans-vesical) the approach being via a lower abdominal incision. TURT is trans-urethral resection of tumour and TURBN is trans-urethral resection of bladder neck.

Trauma Quick Reference: An injury or wound.

Advanced Reference: Can be applied to both physical and mental situations. Physical indicates injury and or damage to body tissues, etc.

Trendelenburg Quick Reference: Operation and position. Now most commonly used with reference to an operating table position.

Advanced Reference: Trendelenburg position is head down with the body sloping downwards and backwards. Used now for a number of procedures but originally for the operation of varicose veins and named after the German surgeon, Freidrich Trendelenburg. In the original position the knees were bent and hanging down at about 40°.

Trephine Quick Reference: (tref-ine) Surgical instrument.

Advanced Reference: Used mainly in neurosurgical operations as an instrument for removing a circle or disc of bone in the skull. A trepan is a cylindrical saw used for the same purpose. A similar instrument is used in ophthalmics to cut out a piece of cornea.

Triage Quick Reference: To sort, sift or filter.

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