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Jaboulay amputation Quick Reference: Also known as hindquarter amputation.

Advanced Reference: The amputation of the whole lower limb with corresponding iliac bone through the sacro-iliac joint. This is regarded as a mutilating operation and is usually performed because of a chondro-sarcoma of the pelvis or upper femur.

Jaboulay pyloroplasty Quick Reference: A side-to-side gastroduodenostomy.

Advanced Reference: This is performed when the pylorus and proximal duodenum are extensively scarred or indurated by peptic ulcer disease.

Jack knife Quick Reference: Surgical operating position.

Advanced Reference: Involves the patient laying on their stomach with the hips flexed and knees bent at 90° and arms outstretched in front. Used for various spinal and rectal procedures.

Jackscrew Quick Reference: A threaded screw.

Advanced Reference: A threaded device used in orthodontic appliances for the separation or approximation of teeth or jaw segments.

Jackson Rees T-piece Quick Reference: A modification of the Ayre's T-piece.

Advanced Reference: Jackson Rees modification to an existing Ayre's T-piece within a paediatric breathing system to ensure that fresh gas flow (FGF) would remain separate from the exhaust gas. The modifications followed on from the Jackson Rees T-tube.

Jackson Rees T-tube Quick Reference: Paediatric tube that incorporates a suction device.

Advanced Reference: FGF with flow across the intersection where the paediatric tube connected with the bar creating the famous T-shape. The top end of the paediatric tube had a removal bung inside. This could be withdrawn when there was a need to aspirate any secretions within the child lungs. The opposite end of the FGF flowing across the cross bar of the T-piece was an open-ended corrugated tubing for expired gas to escape under the direct positive pressure exerted by the patient. A passive scavenging system.

Jacobs chuck

Jacobs chuck Quick Reference: Holding jaws on a power drill used in orthopaedic surgery.

Advanced Reference: Jacobs chuck has three equal jaws that move in and out on an access to allow the insertion of drills or guide wires of all different sizes. Care should be taken with insertion that the drill or guide wire is central and proportionate on all three jaws. This can be achieved by inserting and turning the chuck key in each locating hole with the same number of turns.

Jacques catheter Quick Reference: (jakes) Red rubber catheter/tubing.

Advanced Reference: Often used for digit (fingers/toes) tourniquet application.

Jargon Quick Reference: Incoherent speech.

Advanced Reference: Can be referred to medical terminology that is not easily understood by the lay public.

Jaundice Quick Reference: A yellowish discolourisation of the skin, whites of the eyes (conjunctiva) and mucous membrane.

Advanced Reference: Caused by deposition of the bile pigment, bilirubin, being present in the blood and tissues. Bile pigment accumulates in the blood if (i) too much is formed, (ii) the liver cells do not dispose of it, (iii) the bile ducts are obstructed. A trace of jaundice is common in the first few days of life but is not usually a serious matter.

Jaw thrust Quick Reference: Procedure used for establishing a clear airway.

Advanced Reference: Involves lifting the patients jaw forward from its normal anatomical position therefore lifting the patients tongue from resting and causing obstruction of the oral cavity. Useful with patients who have cervical neck injury.

Jejunosotomy Quick Reference: An artificial opening into the jejunum.

Advanced Reference: The insertion of a feeding catheter into the jejunum. It is performed when there is obstruction of the gastric system more superior to the jejunum or in gastric surgery cases where a partial 7 gastrectomy may have been performed. The feeding tube gives a direct o route for liquid nutrients to be inserted into the jejunum to follow the '■§ normal path of absorption.

t Jejunum Quick Reference: A section of small bowel directly after the ^ duodenum.

a Advanced Reference: The jejunum is approximately 2.4 m in length in the

® normal adult and supports the absorption and nutrients from the break-g> down of food substance by gastric enzymes. Absorption of the nutrients is is through the presence of villi in the lining of the jejunum and the continual movement of food substance by peristalsis. The jejunum connects to the ileum.

Jolls retractor

Jelly Quick Reference: A term used to indicate lubricating jelly.

Advanced Reference: Often referred to during procedures where a level of lubrication is required, e.g. urology, gynaecology, general surgery, etc. However, jelly is commonly used in anaesthetic procedures for introducing an endotracheal (ET) tube with a bougie or stylette. It is also used in endoscopic procedures for insertion of scopes for diagnostic investigations. Generally speaking, this involves a water-based solution such as KY jelly; however, this is often mistaken for lignocaine jelly. Lignocaine jelly (2%) is used to localise sensitive areas for patients under local anaesthesia, which helps prevent discomfort during procedures such as flexible cystoscopy.

Jelonet Quick Reference: Brand name for paraffin gauze.

Advanced Reference: Wound dressing impregnated with paraffin jelly used for burns and wounds.

Jet ventilator Quick Reference: Type of high frequency patient ventilator.

Advanced Reference: The jet ventilator was designed to deliver very high respiratory rate frequencies i.e. 200/300 p.m. combined with small tidal volumes. Designed for use in ICU etc for patients with chest injuries or low compliance.

Jewellers' forceps Quick Reference: Fine non-toothed dissecting forceps.

Advanced Reference: Jewellers forceps are used during microvascular surgery to dissect tissues or to hold the end of vessels or delicate tissue while operating under direct vision via a surgical microscope.

Jewellery Quick Reference: With reference to theatre, controversy still exists regarding the wearing of jewellery by staff but in relation to patients the universal policy is still to either remove where possible or securely cover.

Advanced Reference: With regards to staff, in general it is accepted that jewellery should not be worn in theatre as it can harbour bacteria as well as being a danger by falling into wounds or scratching patients. However, the removal of wedding rings is optional as this can contravene human rights. n

Jobson Horn probe Quick Reference: Non-traumatic curette.

Advanced Reference: The probe has a small circular shape on the end of a fine shaft. The purpose of the probe is to scoop out any ear cavity content such as ear wax and foreign objects.

Joint Quick Reference: The point where two or more bones meet.

Advanced Reference: An articulation.

Jolls retractor Quick Reference: A retractor used during thyroid surgery.

Advanced Reference: Half-moon shaped with a spring-loaded towel clip on either end. The clamp is placed at each side of the surgical incision

Joule at approximately right angles with each towel clip holding the skin edge. The middle knurled adjuster is used to expand the two ends of the clamp outwards creating maximum exposure of the surgical area.

Joule Quick Reference: (jule) SI unit of energy.

Advanced reference: Joule refers to energy or amount of work done. Sometimes equated to watts per second. Most commonly encountered as the power source on defibrillators.

J-pouch Quick Reference: Faecal reservoir.

Advanced Reference: Formed surgically by folding over the lower end of the ileum in an ileo-anal anastomosis.

J-suture Quick Reference: J-shaped multi-use surgical suture needle.

Advanced Reference: The unique shape enables the surgeon to close deep layers of the wound without perforation of the underlying organs. Also used to close laparoscopic trocar incisions. Available in eyed and eyeless design allowing for choice of suture material.

Judd Allis tissue forceps Quick Reference: Tissue forceps used to hold tissue without traumatising the structure.

Advanced Reference: Judd Allis have a slightly bevelled jaws that can be used to grip or hold delicate tissue without causing trauma.

Jugular Quick Reference: Jugular vein situated on both lateral sides of the trachea.

Advanced Reference: There is an internal and external jugular vein commonly feeding into the superior vena cava returning deoxygenated blood to the right atrium of the heart. The external jugular is more visible because of its superficial position under the skin surface. It is regularly used for insertion of a central venous pressure (CVP) line and can be identified by using adjacent landmarks.

Juxtaposition: Quick Reference: To position side by side.

Advanced Reference: The act of placing two or more things side by side or adjacent to one another.

7 J-wire Quick Reference: Flexible wire with curved J-tip. o Advanced Reference: Used as an introduction aid for venous and arterial

■g cannulation.

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