Headlight Quick Reference: Operating light worn by the surgeon.

Advanced Reference: Popular with most specialities. Usually of fibre-optic design and attaches to a static light source. It is worn by the surgeon to supplement the operating lights and can focus on a particular area which might otherwise prevent illumination difficulties.

Head-ring Quick Reference: Patient head support used during surgery.

Advanced Reference: Made of sponge and covered with black rubber or as a clear gel version; it is used when a pillow may be obstructive or as a means of stabilising the head position as in dental surgery.

Health care assistant Quick Reference: Abbreviated as HCA; hospital support worker.

Advanced reference: Support worker with a role developed from that of orderly and auxiliary nurse. Most hospitals and the care home sectors introduced formal training for this group utilising the National Vocational Qualifications (NVQ) training system.

Heart block Quick Reference: Interruption to the conducting channels of the heart.

Advanced Reference: Generally an interruption in conduction between the atria and ventricles due to fibrosis, lesion, etc. Seen as 1st-, 2nd- and 3rd-degree block, indicating level (bundle of His) affected and severity, causing significant electrocardiographical (ECG) changes. Treatment depends on degree and symptoms. With complete block a pacemaker is fitted.

Heartburn Quick Reference: Burning pain felt behind the sternum.

Advanced Reference: Also known as pyrosis. A symptom of dyspepsia and reflux where gastric acid enters the oesophagus and mouth causing a burning sensation. Can be due to such conditions as hiatus hernia. Relieved by alkali preparations.

Heart failure Quick Reference: When the heart loses its ability to produce sufficient output.

Advanced Reference: Can be acute or chronic and affect either right or 7 left side of the heart. Dependent on side or site can produce many signs ® and symptoms including breathlessness and oedema (of lungs, ankles,

£ Also referred to as cardiac failure. It does not really indicate complete

§ failure but that the heart does not function as effectively as it may. £

^ Heart-lung machine Quick Reference: Used primarily during open heart ® surgery.

g> Advanced Reference: Consists basically of a pump and an oxygenator.

Takes over (bypasses) the function of the heart and lungs during open heart surgery by diverting the blood out via the venous system through the oxygenator and returns it to the arterial circulation.


Heat loss Quick Reference: Usually refers to patient's heat loss while within the peri-operative period.

Advanced Reference: Most significant in the intra-operative phase during surgery. Patients lose heat by conduction, convection, radiation as well as via evaporation. A number of heat-loss preventing methods are employed including increased room temperature, additional clothing and coverings, warming of infused fluids, various designs of intra-operative under and over blankets, which utilise warm-air, electric elements and water heating combined with ripple effect for skin pressure protection.

Heel (pad) Quick Reference: Pad placed under the heels during surgery.

Advanced Reference: Intended to relieve pressure on the calves and blood vessels when patient is in the supine position in an attempt to avoid pressure sores and deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

Hegar's (dilators) Quick Reference: (ha-gars) Gynaecological dilator.

Advanced Reference: Set of graduated dilators used in gynaecology during dilatation and curettage (D&C), evacuation of retained products of conception (EVAC) of uterus, etc. to dilate the cervix, etc.

Heidbrink (valve) Quick Reference: (hide-brink) Pressure-limiting valve.

Advanced Reference: An adjustable pressure-limiting valve found in a number of anaesthetic circuits, namely Waters, Magill, etc.

Heimlich (manoeuvre) Quick Reference: (hime-lick) Emergency treatment for upper airway obstruction.

Advanced Reference: A manoeuvre taught in first aid and basic life support (BLS) intended to remove foreign body obstruction of the upper airway using compression of the upper abdomen. The rise in intrathoracic pressure creates a force which expels the cause of the obstruction.

Helium Quick Reference: (He) Inert gas.

Advanced Reference: Combined helium-oxygen mixture is used as a method of delivering alveolar oxygen in patients with upper airway obstruction. Available as individual gas in brown cylinders or in a mixture with 21% oxygen in brown-bodied cylinders with brown and white shoulder. ^

Hemi-arthroplasty Quick Reference: Replacement of half of hip joint. ®

Advanced Reference: Arthroplasty is the operative reconstruction of ctic a joint due to injury or disease. With reference to the hip joint, can be total £

replacement or hemi. The latter involves replacement of the head of §

femur with a prosthesis made of inert material. ~

Hemicolectomy Quick Reference: Surgical removal of a portion (approxi- ®

mately half) of the colon. t?

Advanced Reference: Also referred to as 'partial colectomy'. Involves is removal of ascending and portion of transverse colon. Usual to have 8. a transverse colostomy created following the procedure.


Hemiplegia Quick Reference: (hemi-pleeg-ia) Half, paralysis of one side of the body.

Advanced reference: One-sided paralysis of the body, sometimes following cerebrovascular accident (CVA) when the opposite side has been injured. Person affected is referred to as a hemiplegic.

Heparin Quick Reference: (hep-a-rin) An anticoagulant.

Advanced Reference: A naturally occurring anticoagulant manufactured in the liver. Used for general anticoagulant therapy and to prevent thrombosis and embolism. Has an immediate effect with a duration of action of 4-6h. Antagonised by protamine and naturally in the body by the enzyme heparinase by preventing the action of thrombin on fibrinogen.

Hepatitis Quick Reference: Inflammation of the liver.

Advanced Reference: Mainly seen as type A (viral or infective), B (serum) and C, previously referred to as non-Aand non-B. Due to differing causes: A viral through food or water(type A), blood-borne infection (type B), via blood (type C), etc. Sometimes recorded as acute or chronic. There are further strains referred to as D and E. Both active and passive immunity can be attained via injection.

Hep-flush Quick Reference: Proprietary anticoagulant.

Advanced Reference: Contains heparin and used to wash and rinse the interior of catheters and cannulae, and other forms of tubing to ensure that they remain unobstructed by preventing clotting. Available also as hepsal.

Hermaphrodite Quick Reference: (herm-af-ro-dite) Condition in which both male and female sex organs are present.

Advanced Reference: Hermaphrodites have the primary sex organs (ovaries and testes) of one sex but many secondary characters of the other.

Herniorrhaphy Quick Reference: (her-nee-or-afi) Repair of hernia or rupture. Advanced Reference: Operation to repair a hernia by reinforcing the weakened area with patient's own tissues or synthetic material, e.g. mesh.

Heroin Quick Reference: A narcotic analgesic.

Advanced Reference: Alternative name is diamorphine. A powerful synthetic derivative of morphine prohibited in the US but prescribed in the UK mainly for intractable pain and palliative care. With reference to theatres, seen as an additive with spinal and epidural drugs.

Herpes zoster Quick Reference: Shingles.

Advanced Reference: A virus also related to cause of chickenpox. Affects nerve routes causing pain and redness over site.

Hespan Quick Reference: IV plasma expander, proprietary form of het-astarch. Also known as pentaspan.


Advanced Reference: A colloid solution presented in 6% strength, used for volume expansion. Has a high molecular weight (450,000) and is longer lasting than many alternative plasma expanders. Approximates in many aspects to human albumin.

Hg Quick Reference: Symbol used to indicate mercury.

Advanced Reference: Witnessed in theatre environment with blood pressure (BP) readings; e.g. mmHg.

Hiatus Quick Reference: (hi-a-tus) A space or opening.

Advanced Reference: Meaning half, in relation to theatres; seen as hiatus hernia where the stomach protrudes through the cardiac sphincter.

Hiatus hernia Quick Reference: Protrusion of the upper part of the stomach through the oesophageal opening in the diaphragm.

Advanced Reference: Leads to escape of gastric acid into the oesophagus causing pain and heartburn. Worse after a heavy meal or when lying flat. If symptoms become severe can be corrected by surgery.

Hibidil Quick Reference: Proprietary skin disinfectant.

Advanced Reference: Used also to treat wounds and burns. Produced in the form of a solution in sachets. It is a preparation of chlorhexidine gluconate.

Hibiscrub Quick Reference: Proprietary disinfectant hand wash.

Advanced Reference: Used during the scrub-up prior to surgery. Is a preparation of chlorhexidine gluconate in a surfactant liquid, such as a detergent.

Hibisol Quick Reference: Proprietary disinfectant used to treat minor wounds and burns of the skin.

Advanced Reference: It is a preparation of chlorhexidine gluconate in isopropyl alcohol together with emollients.

Hibitane Quick Reference: (hib-i-tane). Form of disinfectant based on chlorhexidine solution.

Advanced Reference: A broad usage disinfectant derived from chlorhex-idine solution and alternative chlorhexidine salts. Available as powder, creams, compounds and solutions, and for both internal and external use. 7

Hiccup Quick Reference: (hic-up) Involuntary inspiratory spasm involv- 8

ing the muscles of respiration. is

Advanced Reference: Also spelt hiccough (hic-cup). In hiccup there is i a spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm and other respiratory organs ^ followed by sudden closure of the vocal cords producing a characteristic ^

Hidrosis Quick Reference: To sweat. j=

Advanced Reference: Indicates the secretion of sweat. ®

Hilum Quick Reference: (hi-lum) Point of attachment or entry.

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Herbal Remedies For Acid Reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.

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