Dextrosaline Quick Reference IV solution

Advanced Reference: A mixture of 0.18% saline and 4.3% dextrose. This equates to 0.18 g of sodium and 4.3 g dextrose per 100 ml.

DF118 Quick Reference: Proprietary narcotic analgesic.

Advanced Reference: Used to treat moderate to severe pain. Available as tablets and elixir as well as in ampoules for injection as a controlled drug. A preparation of dihydrocodeine tartrate.

Diabetes Quick Reference: A somewhat general term but characterised by excessive urine excretion (polyuria). <:

Advanced Reference: Diabetes insipidus is a rare form in which the kid- . 8 ney tubules do not reabsorb sufficient water. This can be due to inadequate production of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) production by the i pituitary gland leading to excessive production of dilute urine, a defect- ® ive collecting duct or the ADH receptors of the renal tubules being ^ defective. Diabetes mellitus involves a relative or absolute lack of insulin jo due to deficiency of its secretion from the pancreas. This can in turn lead o> to uncontrolled carbohydrate metabolism. Signs and symptoms of dia- is betes mellitus are lassitude and debility, loss of weight, pruritis and S. a lowered resistance to infection.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis Quick Reference: The determination of the nature of a disease.

Advanced Reference: Diagnosis refers to something that is used to determine the cause of an illness or disorder. Differential diagnosis distinguishes between conditions with similar symptoms. Signs & symptoms, i.e. signs are something that may be observed in the process of diagnosis whereas symptoms occur as the result of an illness and are usually recognised by the patient causing them to seek medical help.

Dialysis Quick Reference: (die-al-a-sis) To separate, filter.

Advanced Reference: Selective diffusion through a membrane. As applied in the artificial kidney machine where a membrane divides a stream of the patient's blood, taken from an artery and returned through a vein, from a prepared solution of salts, glucose, etc., which is in the same concentration (isotonic) as normal blood.

Diaphragm Quick Reference: (di-a-fram) Sheet of muscle separating the thorax from the abdomen.

Advanced Reference: The diaphragm arises from the lumbar vertebrae, the lower ribs and the lower end of the sternum. It converges on a flat sheet of dense fibrous tissue and the whole structure forms a sort of dome. A diaphragmatic hernia is a protrusion of a part of the stomach through the oesophageal opening in the diaphragm.

Diaphysis Quick Reference: The shaft of a long bone.

Advanced Reference: Consists of compact bone enclosing the medullary cavity.

Diastole Quick Reference: Resting phase of the heart.

Advanced Reference: Diastole precedes the systole phase and indicates the period when the ventricles are filling with blood.

Diathermy Quick Reference: (di-ah-ther-me) A high-frequency alternating current (AC) which produces heat.

Advanced Reference: The heat is generated not by the electric current but is due to oscillation of the ions in the tissues. A pulsed high-frequency AC coagulates the tissues with minimal disruption whereas a blended current of cutting and coagulation improves haemostasis. Monopolar diathermy is most commonly used in the operating room and consists of the electrosurgical generator, active electrode, patient return electrode and the patient. Bipolar diathermy does not require an earthing plate. The circuit consists of the generator, coaxial lead from the instrument and the patient which carries and returns the current. The earthing, or more accurately the return electrode, forms an important component of the whole unit and if improperly applied can lead to burns. It should be positioned on a well-vascularised area, as close to the operating site as possible, away from bony prominences and any prosthesis as this could interfere with conductivity.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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