Muscle Relaxant Yeast Infections


Advanced Reference: Absence of sufficient cardiac output but displaying (near) normal electrical activity on the ECG. Can be due to pulmonary embolism, pneumothorax, hypovolaemia, hypercarbia, etc.

Emesis Quick Reference: (em-ee-sis) Medical term for vomiting.

Advanced Reference: Emesis can be coupled within further medical terminology, such as haematemesis. Relating to the vomiting of blood. An emetic is any substance that can induce vomiting. An anti-emetic is a drug administered to prevent vomiting.

EMG Quick Reference: Electro myogram. A record of nerve impulses to muscles.

Advanced Reference: Involves the responses of the muscles in the diagnosis of nerve conduction defects and muscle contraction.

Emla Quick Reference: Topical anaesthetic agent.

Advanced Reference: Used for skin analgesia prior to venepuncture, mainly in children but also used with adults. Following application, has an onset of action of approximately 60-90 min. Is a preparation of ligno-caine and prilocaine. Particularly useful for patients with needle phobias.

Emphysema Quick Reference: (em-fa-seem-a) Abnormal presence of air or gas in the tissues, e.g. lungs and subcutaneous tissue.

Advanced Reference: Term normally applied to the lungs in which the alveoli are grossly enlarged and can eventually be destroyed. Found in those suffering from asthma, bronchitis and being associated with smoking and air pollution. The main symptoms are breathlessness. The alveoli can become so damaged that air exchange is barely adequate.

Empyema Quick Reference: (em-pie-ema) An internal abscess.

Advanced Reference: With empyema the pus occupies a natural cavity within the body, e.g. pleura. Treatment is with drainage and antibiotics.

Emulsion Quick Reference: (e-mul-shon) Dispersion of one liquid in another.

Advanced Reference: Indicates a preparation in which droplets of one liquid are dispersed in another. Many medicines are prepared in this way.

n Encapsulated Quick Reference: Contained within a capsule.

< Advanced Reference: The eye can be described as being within the

£ capsule of the orbital space within the skull. There are other situations

2 where sebaceous cysts form within a fibrous capsule.

§ Encapsulectomy Quick Reference: Removal of the capsule and contents.

■I Advanced Reference: Encapsulectomy is often performed during

H removal of a sebaceous cyst. The removal of the capsule will minimise

Q the re-occurrence of the cyst.

c g Encephalo(n) Quick Reference: (encef-alo) Relating to the brain.

Advanced Reference: Encephalopathy indicates any disease of the brain, especially involving physical changes.


Endarterectomy Quick Reference: (en-dar-trec-tommy) Un-blocking of a vessel.

Advanced Reference: Commonly refers to an artery (carotid) and the removal of intima and plaque which is causing a blockage. Also referred to as disobliteration.

Endemic Quick Reference: Indicates a disease which is always present in the population.

Advanced Reference: As opposed to an epidemic which arrives, spreads and disappears.

Endobronchial Quick Reference: (endo-bronc-ial) Indicates entering the bronchus.

Advanced Reference: Endobronchial tubes and blockers are inserted into the bronchus via the trachea. Both used in thoracic surgery. Blockers are rarely used now whereas endobronchial tubes such as the RobertShaw tube and Carlens are used regularly for one-lung anaesthesia.

Endocarditis Quick Reference: Inflammation of the membrane lining the heart (endocardium, the innermost layer of the heart).

Advanced Reference: Especially affects the valves of the heart. Acute endocarditis is the result of rheumatic fever. A number of bacteria can also be involved, i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, S. pneumoniae or S. viridans. Depending on severity, treatment can range from antibiotics to surgical replacement of valves.

Endocrine Quick Reference: Term indicating internal secretion.

Advanced Reference: An endocrine gland is one which releases its secretion (hormone) directly into the bloodstream to act upon another part of the body.

Endogenous Quick Reference: Growing within the body.

Advanced Reference: Produced from internal causes, such as disease.

Endometriosis Quick Reference: Condition in which endometrium (lining of the uterus) of the uterus is found in abnormal places throughout the body.

Advanced Reference: The commonest alternative sites are the surface of the ovaries, peritoneum covering the bladder and pelvic colon, and 7

round ligaments of the uterus. These ectopic fragments pass through the ®

same monthly cycle as the normal uterine membrane, becoming swollen t!

before a period and then bleeding. As there is then no outlet for bleeding £

this leads to pain during the days prior to a period. §

Endometrium Quick Reference: (endo-meet-reum) Inner layer of the uterus. ^

Advanced Reference: Endometrium is a highly vascular structure that ®

has two distinctive layers. The first layer is the superficial layer within t?

the uterus cavity that sheds itself during menstruation, i.e. stratum fj funtionalis. The deeper layer is permanent offering a vascular supply and reformation of the stratum funtionalis after each menstrual cycle.


Endorphin Quick Reference: (en-door-fin) A class of chemical substances found throughout the nervous system.

Advanced Reference: Most abundant in the spinal cord and are concerned with sensation and appear to modify the feeling of pain. It is thought that the painkilling action of narcotics may be due to them imitating the natural effect of endorphins, to which they are chemically related. They are produced in response to painful stimuli.

Endoscope Quick Reference: Instrument for examining the interior of the body.

Advanced Reference: Examples are gastroscope, cystoscope. Can be rigid telescopes or flexible versions which contain fibre-optic light bundles.

Endoscopy Quick Reference: Involves the inspection of body cavities, etc. with a telescope.

Advanced Reference: A fibre-optic telescope has become the most accepted approach for diagnostic investigations and treatment for looking into the digestive, respiratory, gynaecological, orthopaedic, genitourinary and neurological systems. The fibre-optic scope is attached to a light source that transmits light through the fibre bundles within the black flexible tubing. In orthopaedic and genito-urinary surgery, the rigid fibre-optic scope is used to give more direct control and manipulation during surgical procedures.

Endotoxins Quick Reference: A poison forming part of the bacterium and damaging only tissues in the infected area.

Advanced Reference: Found inside bacteria and liberated into the tissues when the organism disintegrates. This is opposed to exotoxins which are secreted by the intact bacteria.

Endotracheal Quick Reference: Indicates, within the trachea, abbreviated as ET.

Advanced Reference: Most commonly refers to the insertion of an ET tube inserted into the trachea during anaesthesia or to provide ventila-tory support.

n End plate Quick Reference: Indicates the motor end plate in the nervous < system.

£ Advanced Reference: Located at the terminal membrane of an axon and

2 the post-junctional membrane of the adjoining muscle tissue.

§ End tidal Quick Reference: Applies to gas readings taken at the end of the

■I respiratory cycle.

§■ Advanced Reference: End-tidal carbon dioxide (CO2) indicates the read° ing by the capnograph at expiration and is an indication of alveolar CO2

End-to-side anastomosis Quick Reference: Involves anastomosing at one end of a vessel to the side of a larger one.


Advanced Reference: Examples would be, jejunum to stomach, donor renal artery to recipient internal iliac artery as in renal transplant.

Enema Quick Reference: Substance injected into the rectum.

Advanced Reference: Carried out for a variety of reasons, e.g. constipation, washout before operation, to instil nutrients, deliver medication. Also, in radiography when the enema contains barium to outline the rectum and colon.

Enflurane Quick Reference: Volatile anaesthetic agent (ethrane).

Advanced Reference: Anaesthetic supplement delivered via a calibrated vaporiser. Only a small proportion is metabolised, making it particularly safe for repeated use. Some evidence that it should not be used with epileptic patients.

ENT Quick Reference: Ear, nose and throat. (otorhinolaryngology).

Advanced Reference: Relates to ENT conditions. However, each subject is a speciality in itself.

Enteral Quick Reference: The intestine.

Advanced Reference: Indicates via the intestinal tract.

Enterovirus Quick Reference: A virus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and then the central nervous system.

Advanced Reference: They produce specific diseases elsewhere in the body, i.e. polio virus, after entering through the alimentary tract.

Entonox Quick Reference: A mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide (N2O).

Advanced Reference: A mixture of 50% oxygen and 50% N2O. Colour coding is blue and white, cylinders are blue with blue and white quartered shoulders. During storage, cylinders must be laid flat, especially if temperatures are below -7°C in order to avoid the liquid N2O settling at the bottom of the cylinder, leaving only oxygen above (stratifying). If then used without inverting or shaking the cylinder, only oxygen will be delivered initially followed by pure N2O once the oxygen is depleted.

Entropian Quick Reference: A condition when the eyelid turns inwards.

Advanced Reference: More commonly affects the lower eyelid. The eyelashes come into contact with the eye itself. Surgical intervention may ^ include the excision of a triangle-shaped piece of skin, muscle and tarsus. ^ The edges are then sutured together to avert the lid margin. ■■§

Enucleation Quick Reference: To shell out, enucleate. Q-

Advanced Reference: Involves the removal of gland, etc., as a whole. As with removal of the eye. |

Enzyme Quick Reference: (en-zime) A substance produced by living cells ^

which promotes chemical change. g

Advanced Reference: An enzyme is a biological catalyst responsible for is metabolism both inside and outside the cells. They are proteins and are S. specific for one reaction or a well-defined group of similar reactions.


Epanutin Quick Reference: Anticonvulsant drug.

Advanced Reference: Used to treat grand mal epileptic seizures. A preparation of phenytoin.

Ephedrine Quick Reference: (ef-e-dreen) Vasoconstrictor and bronchodilator.

Advanced Reference: Used mainly in the treatment of asthma, chronic bronchitis and hypotension, especially during spinal anaesthesia.

Epicardium Quick Reference: Outer surface lining of the heart.

Advanced Reference: Often referred to as the visceral layer of the serous pericardium. This is a transparent layer with delicate connective tissue that creates a smooth but glossy surface. The glossy surface prevents fibrosis and friction between the adjacent structures within the mediastinum.

Epidermis Quick Reference: The outer part of the skin.

Advanced Reference: The thin layer of epithelium tissue that is closely connected to the dermis.

Epididymus Quick Reference: (epe-did-i-mus) A comma-shaped structure attached to the testis.

Advanced Reference: The function of the epididymus is to aid the changes within the spermatozoa. A 6-m length tubing is tightly packed into the comma shape which forms the proximal end of the vas deferens. Research suggests that spermatozoa can be stored within the epididymus potentially for 30 days or longer. After this the spermatozoa is likely to have begun degeneration and become dysfunctional and after this reabsorption begins.

Epidural Quick Reference: Indicates a regional anaesthetic technique.

Advanced Reference: Refers to the administration of a local anaesthetic (LA) injected outside of the dura, in the thoracic, lumbar or sacral levels of the spinal cord. Used commonly in obstetrics during labour and delivery. Often involves the insertion of an indwelling catheter which is used to top-up the levels of anaesthetic.

Epigastrium Quick Reference: A region of the abdomen.

ry Advanced Reference: The upper part of the abdomen in the angle of the

< ribs over the stomach. a g Epiglottis Quick Reference: A leaf-shaped cartilage that lies at the back of

| Advanced Reference: The epiglottis covers the opening from the phar-

■g ynx into the larynx, preventing food from entering the trachea.

Q Epilepsy Quick Reference: The 'falling sickness'

jf Advanced Reference: A convulsive attack due to abnormality of brain func-

^ tion, which may result in a momentary loss of attention or consciousness.

Episiotomy Quick Reference: (ep-pes-e-otomy) An incision in the perineum.


Advanced Reference: The cut is made during childbirth to prevent tearing when the vaginal opening needs to be widened to enable free passage of the baby. Following delivery the cut is sutured.

Epistaxis Quick Reference: Bleeding from the nasal cavity.

Advanced Reference: May be the result of infection or injury, can be a life-threatening condition if bleeding is excessive and not treated.

Epontol Quick Reference: Anaesthetic-induction agent, e.g. propanidid.

Advanced Reference: Non-barbiturate anaesthetic-induction agent which has been superseded by newer products. Dissolved in the same solvent (cremophor) as althesin, therefore had similar reactions and was difficult to inject due to its oily nature. Produces hypotension and hyperventilation followed by apnoea. It is useful for day cases.

ERCP Quick Reference: Endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography.

Advanced Reference: Involves a combination of endoscopy and contrast radiology may be used to demonstrate the biliary and pancreatic ducts.

Ergometrine Quick Reference: Vasoconstrictor and uterine-stimulant drug.

Advanced Reference: Used in childbirth during the third stage of labour, for assisting delivery of the placenta and to prevent postnatal bleeding. Commonly used to contract the uterus during termination of pregnancy and Evacuation of Retained Products of Contraception (ERPC). Ergot is a fungus which is a parasite of rye and contains numerous alkaloids used in medicine, one being that it directly stimulates involuntary muscle.

Ergonomics Quick Reference: The study of efficiency of people in relation to their working environment.

Advanced Reference: Vital in lifting and handling in regard to health and safety for both patients and staff.

Erosion Quick Reference: The breaking down of tissue usually by ulceration.

Advanced Reference: Can refer to a tumour eroding into tissue or a vessel, also erosion of the cervix caused by the replacement of the normal n squamous epithelium by columnar epithelium.

Erythema Quick Reference: (erith -eem-ea) Reddening of the skin. jo

Advanced Reference: An increased blood flow in the capillaries that ü may be caused by infection, exposure to cold or an allergic reaction. ®

Erythrocyte Quick Reference: (er-ith-ro-site) A mature red blood cell. S.

Advanced Reference: This red blood cell contains haemoglobin, the sub- Q

stance that transports oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and CO2 from j=

the tissues to the lungs. ®

Erythromycin Quick Reference: (earth-row-mi-sin) antibiotic.

Escherichea coli

Advanced Reference: Used in the treatment of pneumonia, Legionnaires disease and as an alternative to penicillin in patients who are allergic.

Escherichea coli Quick Reference: (es-sher-ekia) An organism commonly found in the intestines.

Advanced Reference: Mostly harmless, including E. coli which is a normal inhabitant of the large intestine but can cause problems if found in other parts of the body.

Eschmarch bandage Quick Reference: (es-mark) A rubber bandage that is rolled onto an arm or leg to produce a bloodless operative field.

Advanced Reference: The bandage is applied from the distal end of the limb, with the bandage fully stretched on each turn and overlapping by at least a half inch. Once the bandage reaches the tourniquet cuff, the tourniquet is inflated to the required pressure. Originally functioned as a tourniquet in itself but produces unknown pressures.

Esmolol Quick Reference: Anti-arrhythmic.

Advanced Reference: Used for the short term treatment of supraventric-ular arrhythmias (namely, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, peri-operative tachycardia).

ESR Quick Reference: Erythrocyte sedimentation rate.

Advanced Reference: Measures the rate of which red cells settle when a column of blood is left for 1 h.

Ester Quick Reference: A class of chemical compounds formed by the bonding of an alcohol and an organic acid.

Advanced Reference: A compound formed by mixing alcohol and an acid with the elimination of water. Fats are esters produced by the bonding of fatty acids with the alcohol, glycerol. An esterase is any enzyme that splits esters.

Ethanol Quick Reference: Ethyl alcohol.

Advanced Reference: Form of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks produced from fermentation of sugar and yeast. Strong solutions are used N as an antiseptic and for skin preparation.

Ethmoid Quick Reference: (eeth-moid) Sieve like. Small bone of the skull. ■i= Advanced Reference: Forms the roof of the nose. Its name refers to the

2 large number of holes for the olfactory nerves.

§ Ethyl chloride Quick Reference: (eth-al) Inhalational anaesthetic agent. ■I Advanced Reference: Originally a volatile agent with a rapid onset and g- highly inflammable. No longer used as an anaesthetic agent but still func-° tional as a (cold) indicator for extent of spread during regional anaesthesia and sometimes used as a topical local anaesthetic, to 'freeze' the area.

Ethylene oxide Quick Reference: (eth-leen) A gas used in the sterilisation process.


Advanced Reference: Ethylene oxide can penetrate inaccessible parts of a piece of equipment, not able to be sterilised by other methods. However, is explosive and carcinogenic so its use is controlled and also requires a lengthy aeration period.

Etomidate Quick Reference: Anaesthetic-induction agent.

Advanced Reference: The proprietary form is hypnomidate. A non-barbiturate used mainly because of its lack of cardiovascular-depressant effects.

Eusol Quick Reference: (yu-sol) Chlorine-based antiseptic.

Advanced Reference: Contains hypochlorous and boric acid.

Eustachian canal Quick Reference: The connecting tube or channel from the middle ear to the nasopharynx.

Advanced Reference: Its purpose is one of equalizing the pressure of the external air and that contained in the middle ear.

Eustachian tube Quick Reference: (u-station) A narrow tube that connects the middle ear with the naso-pharynx.

Advanced Reference: Its function is to equalise pressure between the middle ear and the atmosphere.

Evacuator Quick Reference: A surgical instrument used in urology. Example is Ellicks evacuator.

Advanced Reference: Designed to flush out small fragments of stone or tissue shavings from the bladder and prostate.

Evaporation Quick Reference: Pertaining to evaporation of a liquid into vapour.

Advanced Reference: Applicable especially with reference to heat loss via large incisions during surgery when heat is lost with fluid evaporation. Alcohol-based skin preps also utilise evaporation as the water they are diluted in holds them on the surface until evaporation of the alcohol occurs and this being long enough to lower bacterial count.

Excretion Quick Reference: Elimination of by-products of digestion and body chemistry. n

Advanced Reference: The principal organs of secretion are the kidneys <

(water, salts, acids, nitrogen compounds), lungs (CO2 and water), skin £

(water, salt) and liver (bile pigments and salts, poisons). g

Exfoliation Quick Reference: Peeling of the surface layer. §

Advanced Reference: Commonly applied to the flaking or peeling of a |

top surface of skin. Seen routinely in patients who have psoriasis. Can g-

also be used to describe other surface layers such as bone when the cells °

or enamel surface becomes diseased. -E

Exocrine Quick Reference: A gland with a duct to carry its secretion to its S. site of action.


Advanced Reference: Examples are salivary glands, pancreas to the duodenum. Opposed to endocrine which indicates a gland with no duct.

Exogenous Quick Reference: Of external origin.

Advanced Reference: A condition caused by external factors and environment.

Exotoxin Quick Reference: A poisonous substance.

Advanced Reference: A soluble poisonous substance produced during growth of a micro-organism and released into the surrounding medium.

Expiratory valve Quick Reference: Adjustable pressure-limiting valve. Advanced Reference: A valve, usually within an anaesthetic circuit, which opens to allow passage of expired gas and closes to prevent drawing air in. A common example is the Heidbrink valve which has a thin disc held in place by a spring which in turn is opened or closed by turning a screwed adjuster.

Extracellular Quick Reference: Situated or occurring outside of the cells. Advanced Reference: A common reference is extracellular fluid, which indicates all body fluid situated outside of the cells, i.e. intravascualr, interstitial, etc.

Extradural Quick Reference: Situated or occurring outside of the dura mater but within the skull.

Advanced Reference: Epidural indicates placing local anaesthetic outside of the dura and within the epidural space.

Extrasystoles Quick Reference: (extra-sist-olee) Indicates extra beats. Advanced Reference: Ectopic beats are an example of extrasystoles.

Extravasation Quick Reference: (ex-trav-a-sachun) Escape of fluid from a (blood) vessel into the tissues.

Advanced Reference: Occurs when a needle or cannula 'tissues' or 'extravasates'. Should the drug or medicine being injected have the potential for harm, there are agents which can help to disperse and/or increase absorption, e.g. hyaluronidase.

Extremity Quick Reference: Indicates the distal part.

Advanced Reference: Refers to the hand or foot and more usually, the fingers and toes.

Extubation Quick Reference: The removal of an ET tube.

Advanced Reference: General term used for the removal of all types and designs of tube from the trachea, etc., either in the theatre, recovery or intensive therapy unit (ITU) setting.

Exudate Quick Reference: A discharge of serous fluid.

Advanced Reference: It is composed of fluid, cells and debris which due to inflammation has escaped from the blood vessels into the tissues.

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