Advanced Reference: Dissecting forceps come in many shapes and sizes and are used for holding tissues. They can be toothed or non-toothed. Some of the most common in use being Adsons, Lanes, Mclndoe, Gillies, Debakey and Bonnies, etc.

Distal Quick Reference: (dis-tal) Further from central.

Advanced Reference: Remote; farther from any point of reference; opposite to proximal. In dentistry used to designate a position on the dental arch farther from the median line of the jaw. Situated away from the centre of the body or point of origin.

Distention Quick Reference: (dis-ten-shun) Enlargement.

Advanced Reference: Abdominal distention is the result of swelling as a result of gas in the intestines or fluid in the abdominal cavity.

Diuresis Quick Reference: (di-u-re-sis) More urine than normal. Advanced Reference: Increased excretion of urine.

Diuretic Quick Reference: (die-your-etic) Drug or substance which increases the flow of urine.

Advanced Reference: Diuretics act on either the distal tubule and others that act on the loop of Henle, and these are termed loop diuretics, a common example being frusemide (lasix). Mannitol also causes an increase of urine output but due to the action of osmotic pressure.

Diverticulitis Quick Reference: (di-ver-tik-u-li-tis) Colon inflammation. Advanced Reference: Inflammation of the diverticulum especially refers to inflammation relating to colonic diverticula. Usually present with lower abdominal pain, colic and constipation may occur and intestinal obstruction or absences may develop. Inflammation of Meckal's diverticu-lum may produce symptoms similar to appendicitis.

Division of adhesions Quick Reference: The surgical separating of fibrous bands or structures to which organs and various anatomy have adhered.

Advanced Reference: Usually occur following previous surgery and can cause internal obstruction.

Documents Quick Reference: Refers to patients' case-files, etc. and any related correspondence, results of investigations, etc. n

Advanced Reference: An original or official paper relied upon as a basis, proof or support of something; a writing (such as a care pathway, care i=

plan, theatre pathway) conveying information; a legal document that ^

may be required as evidence in a court of law. c

Donor Quick Reference: (do-nor) One who gives his blood or his own ■!

organs, e.g. a kidney, or tissue to another who is histocompatible. g-

Advanced Reference: Universal donor - someone who has group °

Dopamine Quick Reference: A neurotransmitter and sympathomimetic, S. e.g. intropin.


Advanced Reference: Used to treat cardiogenic shock following heart attack or during surgery. Sometimes used in small doses to dilate the renal artery following kidney transplantation.

Doppler Quick Reference: A machine that works by relating the drop in pitch of a note when a moving source of sound passes the recording source.

Advanced Reference: Doppler is used to detect flow in blood vessels, i.e. for central venous pressure (CVP) insertion, etc. with the use of a surface probe.

Dopram Quick Reference: Proprietary preparation of doxapram.

Advanced Reference: A respiratory stimulant used to relieve severe respiratory difficulties such as post-operative respiratory depression. Side effects include a rise in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate, and dizziness.

Dorsalis pedis Quick Reference: Refers to the artery in the upper foot above the toes.

Advanced Reference: Used to take a pulse and is palpable between the first and second metatarsal bones on top of the foot. Sometimes used as a site for arterial cannulation.

Dorsiflexion Quick Reference: Bending backwards of the fingers or toes. Advanced Reference: Indicates bending backwards but in many cases actually upwards, e.g. the great toe.

Dorsum Quick Reference: The back or posterior surfaces.

Advanced Reference: Example is, the back of the hand. Dorsal relates to the back or posterior of an organ.

Dosimetry Quick Reference: Giving a dose or measure.

Advanced Reference: Involves the determination of the amount, rate and distribution of radiation to be delivered.

Double-glove Quick Reference: To don two pairs of gloves to give extra protection for the patient.

Advanced Reference: Used regularly in orthopaedic surgery where bone infection is always a possibility and difficult to treat. Can also be used to provide extra protection for the practitioner.

Draffin suspension rods Quick Reference: Surgical instrument used during tonsillectomy or surgery of the mouth.

Advanced Reference: Made of stainless steel and place in a holder on either side of the patient's head. The tongue plate of the mouth gag fits into the rings on the rods allowing the mouth to stay open and freeing up both hands of the operating surgeon.

Drain Quick Reference: A device used in surgery for draining fluid, pus, etc. from a cavity or the operation site.

Advanced Reference: Used to drain fluid away from the operative site in the immediate post-operative period. Drains come in two classifications passive and active.


Drape Quick Reference: Refers to sterile covering used to cover the operative site.

Advanced Reference: Drapes are manufactured from paper or fabric and come in various sizes and shapes to suit the type of surgery being performed.

Dressings Quick Reference: A sterile covering placed over a wound after surgery.

Advanced Reference: A dressing is applied to protect the wound and act as a visual barrier in the post-operative period.

Drip Quick Reference: Slang term used to denote an IV infusion.

Advanced Reference: Although at times intended to make reference to the fluid itself, generally indicates the complete drip configuration of IV fluid bag and giving-set. A drip stand is basically a pole, which attaches to the table or trolley, or mobile on wheels and designed to hold the IV bag at varying heights.

Dromoran Quick Reference: Narcotic analgesic.

Advanced Reference: A preparation of the opiate and narcotic levor-phanol tartrate. Used to relieve severe pain and enhance GA.

Droperidol Quick Reference: Powerful tranquilliser, e.g. droleptan.

Advanced Reference: Used in conjunction with fentanyl in neuroleptic techniques and as an anti-emetic. No longer widely used or available in the UK.

Dual block Quick Reference: Also known as Phase II block.

Advanced Reference: If depolarising agents are given repeatedly, the nature of the block eventually changes and increasingly shows the properties of a non-depolariser making it possible for an anticholinesterase to bring about a degree of reversal. If intermittent suxemethonium infusion is being used, the recommendation is to allow the block to wear off at intervals.

Duct Quick Reference: A tube or channel.

Advanced Reference: A channel with well-defined walls for the passage of excretions or secretions.

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Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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