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c g Hydrogen peroxide Quick Reference: Wound cleaning fluid.

S. Advanced Reference: A mild disinfecting and mainly cleaning fluid used usually in a 6% solution for flushing wounds of debris and dressing

Hyperbaric residue. Its cleaning action is due to liberation of oxygen as it decomposes into water and oxygen as tissue contact is made.

Hydrogen ion concentration Quick Reference: Related to pH (acid/alkali) status.

Advanced Reference: The number of hydrogen ions in a solution is a measure of the acidity of the solution.

Hydrometer Quick Reference: A calibrated hollow glass device used for measuring the specific gravity or density of a liquid.

Advanced Reference: Works by comparing its weight with that of an equal volume of water.

Hydronephrosis Quick Reference: (hydro-nef-rosis) Distention of the renal pelvis.

Advanced Reference: Caused by obstruction to urine flow due to stones, tumour, narrowing of the ureter following tuberculosis (TB) or congenital reasons. Treatment depends on cause, but a kidney badly affected usually requires surgery with the aim of preserving as much as possible or removal if necessary.

Hydrosalpinx Quick Reference: Abnormal condition of the fallopian tubes.

Advanced Reference: In this condition, the fallopian tubes become cys-tically enlarged and filled with clear fluid and is the result of infection which has sealed off the ends of the tubes.

Hygrometer Quick Reference: (hi-grom-eter) Instrument for measuring the amount of moisture in the atmosphere.

Advanced Reference: In the context of theatres, measures the relative humidity, which is the amount of moisture present in the air compared to the amount which would saturate it at the same temperature. Too high (moist) or too low (dry), both have inherent hazards; 50-55% is regarded as safe and suitable for most theatre situations and comfort of staff.

Hyoscine Quick Reference: (hio-seen) Alkaloid drug with hypnotic properties. 7

Advanced Reference: Obtained from Belladonna. An anticholinergic agent ®

with similar properties to Atropine causing sedation and tachycardia and '■§

used as an alternative in premedication. Alternative name is buscopan. £

Hyper- Quick Reference: (hi-per) Above or too much. J

Advanced Reference: A prefix indicating over or above the normal as in par hypertension, high BP; hyperglycaemia, high blood sugar; hyperpyrexia, a abnormally high body temperature; etc. c atr

Hyperbaric Quick Reference: (hi-per-bar-ic) A greater than normal pressure, weight or specific gravity.

Hyperplasia

Advanced Reference: In relation to theatres, hyperbaric (heavy) drugs are used during spinal analgesia. Also, hyperbaric oxygen chambers, when patient is referred for certain conditions, i.e. gangrene. The anaerobic organisms responsible are adversely affected by the presence of oxygen.

Hyperplasia Quick Reference: Increased production and growth of tissue.

Advanced Reference: The increase in the size of tissue or an organ due to enlargement of its cells rather than by multiplication.

Hypertension Quick Reference: High BP.

Advanced Reference: May be a disease in its own right or symptoms of a recognised disease. These may include renal hypertension, pulmonary hypertension and malignant hypertension. Continued hypertension can eventually lead to damage in other areas, such as stroke and kidney damage.

Hyperthermia Quick Reference: (hi-per-therm-ea) Usually indicates a core body temperature greater than 40°C.

Advanced Reference: Can be accidental, in cases such as malignant hyperpyrexia or induced therapeutically in the treatment of, e.g. malignant disease.

Hypertonic Quick Reference: A solution with a higher osmotic pressure than the other.

Advanced Reference: Hypertonic saline has a higher osmotic pressure than normal saline. Mannitol is another example of a hypertonic solution. The opposite being hypotonic, a fluid with a lower osmotic pressure than the other.

Hypertrophy Quick Reference: (hi-per-troffy) Excessive or increased growth of tissue.

Advanced Reference: The increase in the size of tissue or organ due to enlargement of its cells rather than by cell multiplication.

Hypnotic Quick Reference: (hip-not-ic) Drug used to promote sleep.

Advanced Reference: Related in action to sedatives and narcotics, differences being in terms of potency and effect. Benzodiazepines being the most widely used as hypnotics.

Hypo- Quick Reference: (hi-po) Prefix indicating below or too little.

Advanced Reference: Indicates below normal as in hypotension, low BP, hypoglycaemia, low blood sugar; hypochondria, below the ribs; etc.

Hypochlorite Quick Reference: (hi-po-clor-ite) Related to antiseptics and disinfectants.

Hypotensive anaesthesia

Advanced Reference: A salt of hypochlorous acid. These salts have both antiseptic and disinfectant properties, and when decomposed yield active chlorine. Milton is an example.

Hypochondrium Quick Reference: (hi-po-con-dri-um) Area of the abdomen covered by the cartilage of the lower ribs.

Advanced Reference: The upper lateral parts of the abdomen lying to the right and left of the epigastric region.

Hypodermic Quick Reference: (hi-po-der-mic) Below or under the skin.

Advanced Reference: The term usually refers to subcutaneous injections and also applied to indicate the needle and syringe used for the procedure.

Hypoglycaemia Quick Reference: (hi-po-gli-cem-ia) Deficiency of sugar in the blood.

Advanced Reference: The usual cause is an imbalance between sugar levels and available insulin. The excess of insulin uses up glucose from the blood by increased combustion. In diabetics, this can arise from too much insulin or wrong diet. Can also be due to overactivity. Symptoms include perspiration, excitement, delirium and eventually coma.

Hyponatraemia Quick Reference: (hi-po-nat-rem-ia) Low level of sodium in the blood.

Advanced Reference: A blood-sodium level away from the normal range of 135-150 mmol/l. Can be due to excessive diarrhoea and vomiting, sweating, burns and some renal conditions. Treatment is usually with 0.9% saline but in severe cases hypertonic saline may be used. In theatres seen as trans-urethral resection (TUR) syndrome (water intoxication) caused by irrigation of the bladder, even with 1.5% glycine during trans-urethral resection of the prostate (TURP) when water enters the open prostatic veins resulting in a number of symptoms seen mainly in recovery, e.g. restlessness, confusion, abdominal pain, shortness of breath and possibly cardiac arrest.

Hypospadias Quick Reference: (hi-po-spade-ius) Congenital malformation of the penis.

Advanced Reference: The genital folds fail to unite in the midline and the opening of the urethra may be found anywhere on the undersurface of the penis or even in the perineum.

Hypotensive anaesthesia Quick Reference: Techniques used for lowering BP during anaesthesia.

Advanced Reference: The aim is to lower BP and so improve operating conditions for the surgeon. Common in ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery (inner ear surgery). May involve a number of drugs which directly lower BP or combinations of anaesthetic drugs which have this effect. Patient positioning (head-up/down) is also used for some

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