CABG Quick Reference: Coronary artery bypass graft. Referred to as 'cabbage'.

Advanced Reference: A surgical procedure to bypass diseased or damaged coronary arteries using the patient's own veins, usually the saphenous of the leg.

Cadaver Quick Reference: A corpse.

Advanced Reference: Refers to a dead body used for dissection or harvesting of organs.

Caecum Quick Reference: (see-come) First part of the large intestine.

Advanced Reference: It lies in the lower right side of the abdominal cavity. The appendix opens off the caecum.

Caesarean section Quick Reference: Delivery of a baby through an abdominal incision.

Advanced Reference: Performed for a variety of reasons and conditions, e.g. foetal distress, placenta previa, etc. There still remains debate about the origins of the title. One view is that Julius Caesar was born via this method, another states that it stems from a law or dictate issued by Caesar proclaiming that all women dying during childbirth should be cut open in order to save the life of the baby.

Calcium Quick Reference: Metallic element.

Advanced Reference: Calcium levels in the blood are approximately 0.01%. Deficiency or excess can seriously disturb the function of nerve cells and muscle fibres also being necessary in the blood-clotting process. Correct concentration is maintained by the action of hormones of the parathyroid glands.

Calcium antagonist Quick Reference: Group of drugs used as antihypertensives.

Advanced Reference: Used in the treatment of hypertension. They act by reducing calcium entry into the heart which reduces the force of the heartbeat and therefore lowers blood pressure (BP).

Calculi Quick Reference: Commonly referred to as stones.

Advanced Reference: An abnormal and excessive accumulation of mineral salts.

Calculus Quick Reference: (Calculi) A hard insoluble mass (stone) in any hollow organ.

Advanced Reference: Calculi are formed from substances normally dissolved in the fluid contents of the organ, e.g. kidneys, urinary bladder, gall bladder, salivary glands.

Caldwell-Luc Quick Reference: Surgical operation to drain the maxillary sinus.

Advanced Reference: Also referred to as antrostomy. An artificial opening is made through the upper jaw opposite the second molar tooth.

Calibrate Quick Reference: To calculate, correlate readings with a standard.

Advanced Reference: Can refer to calibration of manometers, etc. A transducer used for invasive central venous pressure (CVP)/arterial readings, calibrated to atmosphere before connecting to a patient so to set a constant standard for readings.

Caliper Quick Reference: Two pronged device used to exert traction.

Advanced Reference: Used as part of traction apparatus with fractures, especially those of the power limb. Also a measuring device/instrument.

Callus Quick Reference: Hard tissue formed at the site of a broken bone.

Advanced Reference: Callus collects around and between the bone ends. Cells called osteoblasts multiply and form irregular bone which knits the ends together as new bone develops.

Calorie Quick Reference: Unit of energy.

Advanced Reference: Is the amount of heat required to warm 1 kg of water by 1°C. The calorie value of food is the number of calories it would yield if it were completely burnt.

Canal Quick Reference: Passageway.

Advanced Reference: Examples are the anal canal, alimentary canal.

< Cancer Quick Reference: A disorder of cell growth.

J Advanced Reference: A carcinogen is any substance liable to cause is cancer. The term carcinoma is used generally but actually indicates i cancers arising in or covering membranes. a

| Candela Quick Reference: SI unit of luminosity.

8. Advanced Reference: A measure of the intensity of luminosity.

o g> Cannulation Quick Reference: To make access to a vessel, etc. with a cannula.

is Advanced Reference: Term most commonly used in relation to the inser-

8 tion of intravenous (IV) cannulae. Can however also indicate access to an artery and several other invasive techniques. Often used interchangeably with catheterisation, but this commonly indicates a longer device, i.e. CVP or as in bladder catheterisation of the urethra.

Capacitance Quick Reference: To store; stored electrical charge.

Advanced Reference: Something with the ability to retain an electrical charge. A capacitor consists of a conductor separated by an insulator and so prevents (stores) flow of direct current (DC) and maintains it ready for discharge. A defibrillator is charged to the required joules ready to deliver the shock and the capacitor stores the energy which is then delivered as/when required.

Capillary Quick Reference: Smallest blood vessel.

Advanced Reference: A minute vessel which connects an arteriole and a venule. It is in the capillary that the blood and the tissue fluids exchange gases, food and waste products.

Capnograph Quick Reference: A device which displays carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration.

Advanced Reference: Capnography utilises infrared light absorption to measure CO2 concentration, most commonly end-tidal CO2 when it is displayed in both numerical and wave form. End-tidal CO2 approximates to alveolar PCO2 which in turn indicates arterial PCO2. Capno-metry indicates measurement only or the reading of CO2.

Capsule Quick Reference: Fibrous sheath enclosing an organ.

Advanced Reference: The tough flexible casing of a joint strengthened with ligaments and lined with a synovial membrane.

Carbolic acid Quick Reference: Phenol.

Advanced Reference: One of the first antiseptics. Still used as a standard to measure newer germicides.

Carbon Quick Reference: Non-metallic chemical element.

Advanced Reference: At one time operating table covers, wheels, anaesthetic tubing, etc. contained carbon as a conductor for static electricity.

Carbon dioxide Quick Reference: Colourless gas which comprises 0.03% of air. Product of body metabolism. Chemical symbol CO2.

Advanced Reference: Formed following oxygen metabolism in the body and carried via the blood and plasma in the veins to the lungs where it forms approximately 3-4% of expired air. When dissolved in water, forms carbonic acid and it is carried mainly in this state to the lungs.

Carbon monoxide Quick Reference: Colourless, odourless gas formed by the incomplete burning of fuels. Most common example is car-exhaust fumes.

Advanced Reference: It combines with the haemoglobin much easier than oxygen and leads to carbon monoxide poisoning which is a type of asphyxia. However, it produces a bright pink complexion rather than the blue appearance associated with the lack of oxygen.

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