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Babcock Quick Reference: A tissue-holding forceps used during bowel surgery.

Advanced Reference: A hollow-ended holder that can pick up bowel without damage to the delicate bowel tissue.

Bacillus Quick Reference: (bas-il-us) Term used originally to mean a rod-shaped, as opposed to a round, micro-organism.

Advanced Reference: The many diseases caused by bacilli include anthrax, diphtheria, gas gangrene, tetanus, tuberculosis and typhoid.

Back Quick Reference: Pertaining to the posterior surface.

Advanced Reference: Refers to the rear surface of the patients' trunk. Is referred to as the dorsum of an anatomical surface. The dorsum (back) of the hand as used for intravenous (IV) cannulation.

Back bar Quick Reference: Connecting block that seats the anaesthetic vaporiser.

Advanced Reference: The back bar is situated between the flowmeters and the connecting fresh gas flow pipeline within the anaesthetic machine. Commonly the back bar contains the selectatec seating pins for the vaporiser to be positioned in line. More modern back bars allow for multiple vaporisers to be fitted with interlocking mechanisms designed to prevent simultaneous delivery of vapours.

Back blows Quick Reference: Choking airway obstruction relieving method.

Advanced Reference: A manoeuvre used as first step in relieving foreign body airway obstruction.

Back support Quick Reference: A half-moon-shaped support-offering protection for the patient in the lateral position.

Advanced Reference: A back support often termed lumbar support is used to support the patient on the operating table. A patient in the lateral position can be precarious and requires the patient to be protected from falling off the operating table. A table clamp holds the support in place. The support has an adjustable arm with antistatic padding covering the metal area.

Bacteria Quick Reference: A single cell microbe that has the capacity to multiply.

Advanced Reference: Bacteria can become harmful to humans through the increase in number of bacterial cells. Bacteria spread requires food substance, warm temperature and, for some types, the presence of oxygen. Common forms of bacteria are cocci, bacilli and spirochaetes. Through these bacterial forms poisonous toxins are spread via exotoxins (which freely diffuse outward from the bacterial cell and spread throughout the human body) and endotoxins (which are released once the bacteria itself has become dysfunctional).

Bacterial filter Quick Reference: A filter attached to the patient's end of a breathing circuit preventing spread of infection.

Advanced Reference: Bacterial filters are used more routinely to prevent expired bacteria being transmitted into a breathing system that will later be attached to other patients. The filter contains a 22-mm male and female connector allowing connection between the breathing circuit and the patient airway device.

Bain breathing system Quick Reference: A breathing system used in conjunction with an anaesthetics machine.

Advanced Reference: A breathing system that attaches to the fresh gas outlet (22 mm connection) comprised of a re-breathing bag at the machine's end along with an expiratory valve. The system has two tubings (co-axial); the inner one being thinner than the outer (red, green, blue or black). The inner tubing carries fresh gas flow to the patient and the outer expired gas which is regulated by the expiratory valve. Equates to the Mapleson D classification.

Bair hugger Quick Reference: (bare) A warming device used to regulate and maintain patient's body temperature intraoperatively.

Advanced Reference: Bair hugger is the manufacturers name for a paper and plastic blanket that fills with regulated hot area. The movement of hot air within this device flows readily through the blanket offering a constant volume of warm air.

Bakers cyst Quick Reference: A cyst found in the popliteal space.

Advanced Reference: Formed of synovial fluid that has escaped from the bursa, usually secondary to some other condition.

Balfour retractor Quick Reference: (bal-for) A self-retaining retractor used regularly in abdominal surgery.

Advanced Reference: Is of open-ended design with curved, fixed retractor blades and a third centre blade. There is an option to use the centred blade. The blade is attached and screwed into position holding the retractor firmly in situ at the operation site. The third blade resembles a Doyens retractor, with features of a curved shape and a lip on the underside.

Balken frame Quick Reference: Also referred to as Balkan beam. A traction device used in orthopaedics.

Advanced Reference: A rectangular frame that fixes to the bed and is used for attaching splints, suspending or changing the position of immobilised limbs or providing continuous traction with weights and pulleys.

Balloon pump Quick Reference: Device used to support cardiac output.

Advanced Reference: The balloon is positioned within the descending aorta at the beginning of diastole and deflated immediately before systole. Introduced via the femoral artery and inflated with helium or carbon dioxide. Synchronised with the electrocardiography (ECG) and arterial trace. Increases coronary tissue blood flow and improves oxygen supply to the myocardium. A temporary measure in left ventricular failure, cardiogenic shock, after myocardial infarction (MI) and pre- or post-cardiac surgery.

Banding Quick Reference: Rubber-band ligation.

Advanced Reference: The application of a small silastic band, commonly used in haemorrhoidectomy, placed around the pedicle of each haemorrhoid.

Bar Quick Reference: Unit of pressure.

Advanced Reference: 100 kPa = 1bar = 1atm = 15lb/in2 = 760mmHg.

Barbiturate Quick Reference: Group of drugs used mainly as sedatives and anaesthetics.

Advanced Reference: Group of drugs derived from barbituric acid, with a wide range of essentially depressant action. Work by direct action on the brain. Thiopentone is the most commonly used barbiturate anaesthetic induction agent.

Bard Parker Quick Reference: A surgical blade holder.

Advanced Reference: Often referred to as the Bard Parker handle. Bard Parker handles come in different lengths and hold different sizes of surgical blades.

Barium Quick Reference: (bare-e-um) A flexible soft silvery metallic element.

Advanced Reference: The properties of barium allow it to be detected by X-rays. Barium is used within the X-ray departments as a 'barium meal' for the patient to ingest and it provides a diagnosis of any changes in the digestive system using X-ray images. Barium enema is also used for visualisation of the colon and to impregnate devices entering the body (such as IV cannulae, etc.) so as to make them X-ray detectable.

Barre-Guillain syndrome Quick Reference: A condition that causes paralysis of the nervous system.

Advanced Reference: The disorder encourages the body's immune system to attack the peripheral nervous system. This attack causes a varying

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