Beta-blocker Quick Reference: (beeta-blocker) Medications whose effect is to reduce the rate and force of the heartbeat.

Advanced Reference: Beta-blocker drugs oppose certain actions of the sympathetic nervous system in particular stimulation of the heart. Principally used to treat hypertension.

Betadine Quick Reference: (bet-a-deen) A skin preparation or a surgical scrub solution.

Advanced Reference: Betadine is a trade name for an iodine-based solution. Iodine is used to minimise the spread of bacteria on the skin surface. Betadine can be clearly identified by its unique dark yellow/ brown appearance.

Bevan report Quick Reference: Government commissioned report into the staffing of operating theatres.

Advanced Reference: Professor Gilroy Bevan found that there were difficulties within theatre when one group of staff (anaesthesia or surgery) may be absent causing cancellation of operating lists. Skill mix and multi-skilling soon became a focused concern following the report.

Biceps Quick Reference: (bi-seps) Main muscle of the upper section of the arm.

Advanced Reference: Biceps are connected to the shoulder joint and held to the radius by tendons. They participate in the mechanics of lifting of the forearm by counteracting the action of the triceps.

Biconcave Quick Reference: (buy-con-cave) A structure that has inwardly curved depressions on both sides.

Advanced Reference: The inwardly facing structures often present themselves in various pieces of equipment as transmitters of light from one focal point to another.

Biconvex Quick Reference: A structure that has outward curvatures.

Advanced Reference: Can be found as with biconcave structures in devices that transmit light.

Bicuspid Quick Reference: Indicates having two projections or cusps.

7 Advanced Reference: The mitral valve of the heart between the left

® atrium and ventricle is also known as a bicuspid valve due to its signifi-ct cant shape.

i Bier's block Quick Reference: (beers) Regional analgesia technique used ^ on limbs.

^ Advanced Reference: Bier's block is a Local Anaesthetic (LA) technique

® used primarily for upper limbs and to a lesser extent legs. Involves use of a double (tourniquet) cuff. The proximal cuff is inflated followed by LA injected into a vein, once the local starts to work the distal cuff is S. inflated and when fully inflated the proximal cuff is deflated. The distal cuff would thus be over an area that is affected by the LA.

Bifid Quick Reference: The separation of a structure into two parts.

Advanced Reference: Often referred to as cleft. Commonly associated with cleft palate. Also, a bifid uterus.

Bifurcate Quick Reference: (bi-for-cate) The division of a structure into two branches.

Advanced Reference: Arteries and veins continually bifurcate throughout the human body. The trachea bifurcates into two main bronchi. The bifurcation point of the trachea is known as the carina.

Bigeminy Quick Reference: (buy-gem-iny) Bi indicates two. Refers to a cardiac dysrhythmia/arrhythmia.

Advanced Reference: Term that refers to ectopic beats seen on an ECG trace and when they appear in pairs.

Bilateral Quick Reference: (bi-lat-eral) Refers to both sides.

Advanced Reference: Bi meaning two, is applied to surgery by stating that both sides of a structure will be operated upon. Bilateral inguinal hernia repair, means the patient has an inguinal hernia of both sides of the abdomen and will be repaired under one anaesthetic.

Bile Quick Reference: A liquefied enzyme that is secreted by the liver.

Advanced Reference: A yellow-green-coloured sticky fluid that becomes concentrated in the storage pouch of the biliary tree, i.e. the gall bladder. The substance travels from the gall bladder along the cystic duct down through the common bile duct and into the duodenum. The main function of bile is to assist in the breakdown of emulsifying fats and may be seen within the naso-gastric tube when inserted into patients undergoing gastric surgery.

Biliary tree Quick Reference: Refers to the components associated with production and passage of bile.

Advanced Reference: The main components of the biliary tree are the liver, gall bladder, cystic duct, common bile duct the ampulla of vater, head of pancreas and associated arteries and veins.

Bilirubin Quick Reference: Orange-coloured substance produced by the destruction of haem. 7

Advanced Reference: Bilirubin is circulated to the liver within the g plasma cells later to be filtered by the liver and eventually excreted the bile. The accumulation of bilirubin in the blood and tissues results in £

the yellow pigmentation of the patients' skin and eyes. This discoloura- §

tion is associated with jaundice. ■!

Billroth Quick Reference: A type of gastrectomy.

Advanced Reference: Named after an Austrian surgeon who developed g the technique of removing the majority of the lesser curvature of the is stomach and the pyloric segment. The remaining section of the fundus S. and antrum of the stomach are then anastomosed to the duodenum.

Bimetallic strip Quick Reference: A temperature-compensating device within modern vaporisers.

Advanced Reference: A bimetallic strip containing two dissimilar metals that are fused together and expand at different rates when heat is applied. If one metal is heated and starts to expand, the other counteracts and prevents full expansion of the other. This process is utilised in vaporisers to maintain the regulated percentage of volatile being delivered, irrespective of surrounding temperature changes.

Bio-hazard Quick Reference: Any hazard arising from inadvertent human biological processes.

Advanced Reference: Examples would be, needle-stick injuries, spillages (chemicals, body fluids, etc.).

Biopsy Quick Reference: Small sample of tissue for study.

Advanced Reference: Biopsies are usually taken for study under a microscope and can assist with the diagnosis of a patient's condition or underlying disease. There are different types of biopsy, e.g. Trucut biopsy, frozen section. Often referred to as 'taking a bite'.

Bipolar Quick Reference: Device or structure with two poles.

Advanced Reference: Often referred to, in theatre, as bipolar diathermy. Bipolar diathermy being that the current flows down one pole (on the forceps) and travels back up the second pole. Also used in psychiatry to describe certain conditions.

Birketts Quick Reference: Long curved artery forceps.

Advanced Reference: Fine curved tip artery forceps that are used during abdominal surgery. The fine tips are useful to clamp vessels and structures, when dissecting the mesentery from the intestinal system.

Birth canal Quick Reference: Relating to the passage through the uterine cervix.

Advanced Reference: The birth canal is the channel formed by the cervix, vagina and vulva through which the foetus is expelled during normal birth.

7 Bispectral index Quick Reference: A sophisticated electroencephalogram

'o Advanced Reference: An EEG machine popular in American anaesthe-

£ sia and used to monitor the activities of the brain. By placing the elec-

§ trodes onto the patient's head the anaesthetist can monitor the effects of tmr anaesthesia and interpret these in relation to awareness. a

¿b Bite guard Quick Reference: Used to protect the patients' teeth. g> Advanced Reference: Bite guards are made of silicone/rubber and can be used while intubating or during electro-convulsive therapy (ECT). S. The bite guard is essentially intended to prevent damage to teeth, tongue and lips, etc.

Bladder Quick Reference: A sac or container able to hold a volume of fluid.

Advanced Reference: Bladder is often described in theatre in relation to two anatomical structures of the human body: (1) Urinary bladder, Part of the renal system where the ureters from the right and left kidneys drain into. The bladder becomes the collection chamber for urine. (2) The gall bladder within the biliary system acting as a collection chamber for bile excreted from the liver.

Blade Quick Reference: Refers to scalpel blade.

Advanced Reference Blades come in different sizes and shapes, and are attached to a compatible handle such as a Bard Parker handle. Also refers to disposable scalpels.

Bleeder Quick Reference: A bleeding vessel.

Advanced Reference: Slang term that refers to a damaged blood vessel usually during surgery.

Blepharoplasty Quick Reference: (blef-row-plasty) Correction of excessive tissue of the eyelids.

Advanced Reference: Operation performed to reduce the excess tissue from the upper and lower eyelids. Excess tissue occurs often during the ageing process. Termed as a plastic or cosmetic operation.

Blood Quick Reference: A red fluid contained within the vessels.

Advanced Reference: Blood circulates through the heart and blood vessels supplying oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body. Consists of approximately 55% fluid and 45% cells, etc. Adult volume is about 5l. Blood plasma is the fluid part of the blood in which the cells are suspended and the fluid left after the blood has clotted is called serum. Blood flow is defined as perfusion pressure (over) resistance.

Blood-brain barrier Quick Reference: The membrane between the blood and the brain.

Advanced Reference: A permeable membrane that supports movement of water, oxygen, carbon dioxide and other substances such as alcohol and GA drugs. Essentially the blood-brain barrier maintains a distinctive separation of the blood from direct contact with the brain but sup- n ports the passage of essential components. Often jokingly referred to by < anaesthetists as the dividing line (at the screen/towel rail) between £ surgery and anaesthesia. 2

Blood clotting Quick Reference: The solidifying of blood. §

Advanced Reference: Where blood has started to coagulate to form |

a jelly-like substance. Clotting can occur external to the blood vessel or g-

even within the vessel. Blood clotting is a natural mechanism of the °

human body when injury occurs. 11

Blood-gas analysis Quick Reference: Blood-gas measurement involves the analysis of heparinised fresh arterial blood.

Advanced Reference: The parameters measured are arterial blood oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures and the pH of the arterial blood. From these other parameters can be ascertained, e.g. bicarbonate, base excess.

Blood patch Quick Reference: Done for the relief of post-spinal headache following dural puncture.

Advanced Reference: Injection of 10-20 ml of autologous venous blood, immediately after removal from a peripheral vein into the extradural space. It is performed for the relief of post-spinal headache following dural puncture. Diligent attention to asepsis is observed at all times.

Blood pressure Quick Reference: Pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels (arteries).

Advanced Reference: Blood is driven through the arteries by pressure. It is highest when the heart contracts (systole) and lowest when it relaxes (diastole). In an adult this is approximately 120mmHg (systolic) and 80mmHg (diastolic). Blood pressure alters with disease and age.

Blood products Quick Reference: Refers to products present in or obtained from donated blood.

Advanced Reference: Plasma reduced blood or packed red cells have had a portion of the plasma removed in order to be used for specific functions, these include fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), platelets, factor VIII, etc.

Blood sugar Quick Reference: Amount of glucose in the circulating blood.

Advanced Reference: Expressed in millimoles per litre. Normal range is 3.5-5.5 mmol/l.

Blood transfusion Quick Reference: The transfer of blood or administering of donated blood.

Advanced Reference: May be donated from another person of the same blood grouping or oneself (auto). Involves the introduction of stored or removed blood into the circulatory system via a blood-giving set. Transfusion is carried out for a number of both medical and surgical reasons, e.g. blood loss, anaemia, etc.

Blood warmer Quick Reference: Device used for warming transfused blood.

Advanced Reference: A number of designs are available; e.g. coil through warmed water, electric element, etc. All designed to prevent the adverse effects of transfused blood taken straight from the fridge.

o BMI Quick Reference: The body mass index (BMI) of an individual can be used to calculate the obesity risk to health.

Pregnancy And Childbirth

Pregnancy And Childbirth

If Pregnancy Is Something That Frightens You, It's Time To Convert Your Fear Into Joy. Ready To Give Birth To A Child? Is The New Status Hitting Your State Of Mind? Are You Still Scared To Undergo All The Pain That Your Best Friend Underwent Just A Few Days Back? Not Convinced With The Answers Given By The Experts?

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