has led to a better understanding of the properties of skin and hair. Molecular modeling techniques are beginning to be applied to data obtained in skin sensory studies.

Emphasis in the Cosmetic Science and Technology series is placed on reporting the current status of cosmetic technology and science and changing regulatory climates and presenting historical reviews. The series has now grown to 26 books dealing with the constantly changing technologies and trends in the cosmetic industry, including globalization. Several of the volumes have been translated into Japanese and Chinese. Contributions range from highly sophisticated and scientific treatises to primers and presentations of practical applications. Authors are encouraged to present their own concepts as well as established theories. Contributors have been asked not to shy away from fields that are in a state of transition, nor to hesitate to present detailed discussions of their own work. Altogether, we intend to develop in this series a collection of critical surveys and ideas covering diverse phases of the cosmetic industry.

The 13 chapters in Multifunctional Cosmetics cover multifunctional products for hair, nail, oral, and skin care, as well as products with enhanced sunscreen and antimicrobial properties. Several chapters deal with the development of claim support data, the role of packaging, and consumer research on the perception of multifunctional cosmetic products. The authors keep in mind that in the case of cosmetics, it is not only the physical effects that can be measured on the skin or hair, but also the sensory effects that have to be taken into account. Cosmetics can have a psychological and social impact that cannot be underestimated.

I want to thank all the contributors for participating in this project and particularly the editors, Perry Romanowski and Randy Schueller, for conceiving, organizing, and coordinating this book. It is the second book that they have contributed to this series and we appreciate their efforts. Special thanks are due to Sandra Beberman and Erin Nihill of the editorial and production staff at Marcel Dekker, Inc. Finally, I would like to thank my wife, Eva, without whose constant support and editorial help I would not have undertaken this project.

Eric Jungermann, Ph.D.


In the last several years our industry has seen a shift toward the widespread acceptance of, and even demand for, products that offer more than one primary benefit. A variety of technological and marketing factors have contributed to this shift. From a technological standpoint, improved raw materials and formulation techniques have improved the formulator's ability to create products that can accomplish multiple tasks. In fact, certain performance attributes that were at one time viewed as incompatible or mutually exclusive (such as simultaneous shampooing and conditioning of hair or concurrent cleansing and moisturizing of skin) are now routinely delivered by single products. From a business perspective, changing marketing tactics have also played a role in the escalation of product functionality. Marketers have become increasingly bold in their attempts to differentiate their products from those of their competitors. Thus, products that claim to have three-in-one functionality attempt to outdo those that are merely two-in-ones. For these reasons, among others, it has become important for cosmetic chemists to understand how to develop and evaluate multifunctional personal care formulations.

In this book we discuss multifunctional cosmetics from a variety of viewpoints. First, and most fundamentally, we attempt to define what constitutes a multifunctional product. The first two chapters establish the definitions and guidelines that are used throughout the book. The next several chapters describe the role of multifunctionality in key personal care categories. Three chapters are devoted to hair care, with special emphasis on one of the most influential types of multifunctional products, the two-in-one shampoo. In the last several years, two-in-ones have risen to an estimated 20% of the shampoo market, and we can trace the history and technical functionality of these formulations. Other multifunctional hair

■a v care products we explore include those designed to deliver, enhance, or prolong color as they clean or condition hair.

Chapters 5-7, 9 delve into the role of multifunctional products in skin care. After an overview of the category we discuss the growing importance of shower gels and bath products that claim to cleanse and moisturize skin in one simple step. We also address how facial care products can perform multiple functions such as cleansing, conditioning, and coloring. We then discuss how antiperspirant/deodor-ant products use dually functional formulas to control body odor. Chapter 7 discusses the relatively new area of cosmeceuticals—products that have both drug and pharmaceutical functionality.

While the book is primarily concerned with hair and skin care products, one chapter is devoted to oral care. There is a clear trend in this category toward products that perform more than one function; for example, toothpaste formulations have gone beyond simple cleansing by adding functionality against cavities, tartar, plaque, and gingivitis.

The next two chapters focus on specific functional categories. We discuss how to add moisturizing or conditioning functionality to products that have another primary functionality. For example, Chapter 9 deals with expanding product functionality by adding sunscreen protection; Chapter 10 describes how to include antibacterial properties in a product.

The last three chapters describe some of the executional details one should be aware of when creating multifunctional products. We discuss general considerations related to formulation and how to design and implement tests for supporting claims. We also cover legal considerations, particularly with respect to OTC monographs, in which covering more than one function can lead to problems. The final chapter is devoted to the role of packaging in multifunctional products.

Randy Schueller Perry Romanowski

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