■a sulfonates, for example, tend to be more irritating to the eyes. The alkyl sulfonates are believed to have difficulties with viscosity control and consistency among different suppliers, or even among different batches from the same supplier [74]. The chemical structures representing the sulfonates are

RCH=CHCH2SO3M (Alkene sulfonate)

RCH(OH)CH2CH2SO3M (Hydroxy alkane sulfonate)

where R is an alkyl chain with 12-14 carbons, and M is a cation such as sodium.

4.1.3 Alkyl Sulfosuccinate and N-Acyl Sarcosinates

Alkyl sulfosuccinate and N-acyl sarcosinates are also anionic surfactants that are occasionally found in two-in-one shampoos but not used as primary cleaning agents. They foam poorly and do not have the required detergent power, but they very mild and believed to have some hair conditioning effects. Also, they are more compatible with the cationic conditioning agents. Examples of these surfactants are disodium monococamido methylisopropylaniline (MIPA) sulfosucci-nate, disodium-monolaurylsulfosuccinate, sodium lauryl sarcosinate, and cocoyl sarcosinate.

4.1.3 Betaine, Amphodiacetate, and Hydroxysultaine

Amphoteric surfactants also used some formulations of two-in-one shampoos include betaine, amphodiacetate, and hydroxysultaine. They are typically formulated in combination with one other anionic surfactant, because amphoteric surfactants by themselves do not have superior cleaning power or lathering characteristics. However, they are exceptionally mild for surfactants, and have very low level of eye irritations. They are also believed to work synergistically with anionic surfactants to lower the overall eye irritancy [22,23]. Examples of amphoteric surfactants often used in two-in-one are cocamidopropyl betaine, disodium lauroam-phodiacetate, and cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine.

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