Anionic surfactants Sodium (or ammonium) lauryl sulfate Sodium (or ammonium) laureth sulfate Sodium cetearyl sulfate Sodium trideceth sulfate Sodium carboxylate Sodium lauroyl sarcosinate TEA-dodecylbenzenesulfonate Disodium ricinoleamidosulfosuccinate Amphoteric surfactants Coco betaine

Cocamidopropylhydroxysultaine Disodium lauro(or coco)-amphodiacetate Cocamidopropyl betaine Silicone polymers Dimethicone Amodimethicone Quaternized polymers Polyquaternium-10 Polyquaternium-15

Guar hydroxypropyltrimonium chloride Hydroxypropyltrimonium hydrolyzed protein Nonionic surfactants as foam booster or emulsifer PEG-150 distearate (or glycol distearate) Cetyl alcohol (or lauryl alcohol) Hydrogenated polydecene Cocamide MIPA (or cocamide MEA) Glyceryl palmate (or cocoate)

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fer the ingredients that have a long history of safe use, perhaps out of concerns about efficacy, costs, or regulatory issues. The typical cleaning agents commonly found in the two-in-one shampoos are alkyl sulfates, alkyl ether sulfates, alkyl sulfonates, alkyl benzenesulfonates, sulfosuccinates, sarcosinates, betaine, amphodi-acetate, and hydroxysultaine, as described next.

4.1.1 Alkyl Sulfates and Alkyl Ether Sulfates

Two anionic surfactants are used exclusively in the majority of two-in-one shampoos today, frequently serving together as a blend. These are alkyl sulfates and alkyl ether sulfates. The alkyl sulfate is represented by the following structure:

r-o-so3m where R is an alkyl of 12 carbons or 14 carbons, and M is a cation such as sodium, ammonium, or triethanolamine (TEA).

The alkyl sulfates often found in the two-in-one shampoos are sodium lau-ryl sulfate, ammonium lauryl sulfate, or TEA lauryl sulfate, each with its limitations. Sodium lauryl sulfate, for example, does not have good aqueous solubility at low temperature, while ammonium sulfate needs to be formulated at low pH, and TEA lauryl sulfate has a tendency to hydrolyzed at acidic pH.

The alkyl ether sulfates are milder surfactants than the alkyl sulfates, and are less irritating to the eyes. But their lathering and viscosity characteristics are inferior. This is why they are often used in blends with alkyl sulfates to take advantages of the benefits of each surfactant type. The alkyl ether sulfates has the following chemical structure,


where R is an alkyl chain with 12-14 carbons, and n is the degree of ethoxylation, usually between 1 and 5.

4.1.2 Alkyl Sulfonates and Alkyl Benzenesulfonates g

The sulfonates as a class have some useful shampoo and detergent characteristics. They are anionic surfactants that have excellent "flash" foam, superior cleaning power, and stability over a wide range of pH values [73]. But they also have negative properties that keep them from being used more widely. The alkylbenzene

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