Toothpaste for Sensitive Teeth

Some toothpaste are meant to help prevent pain in teeth sensitive to heat, cold, and pressure. Sensitive teeth are usually the result of recession of the gums, which has led to expose tooth roots. Because the roots are not protected by enamel, the small channels leading to the pulp of the tooth are vulnerable to environmental factors like heat and cold. Toothpaste formulations geared for sensitive teeth work by either deadening nerve endings or making teeth less porous. Active ingredients...

Skin Care

Safety testing of skin care products is an important prerequisite to successful market launch for two-in-one, three-in-one, and all-in-one products. This is because the skin, as the largest organ of the body, is an extraordinarily complex and dynamic organ. To maintain normal homeostasis with the internal and external mileu of the body, the stratum corneum along with the major epidermal cell types i.e., keratinocytes, melanocytes (pigment cells), Langerhans cells (the immune macrophage of...

Views Regarding the Term Cosmeceutical

An aspect of the cosmeceutical revolution to consider is its reason for being in the first place. Historically, consumer needs and demands have driven the cosmetic market to evolve to this point. Many years ago, a cosmetic or toiletry product was expected to have one simple function. For example, a lotion helped to moisturize dry skin, and a deodorant was used to mask body odors. As consumers increasingly demanded substantially more benefits from cosmetics and toiletries, multifunctional...

Mouthwash

Mouthwash works in several different ways to fight bad breath. One way is to reduce the number of anaerobic bacteria in a person's mouth. These bacteria produce the volatile sulfur compounds that are the actual cause of halitosis. In other words, the mouthwash kills the bad germs that cause bad breath. Mouthwash can also be formulated to neutralize volatile sulfur compounds already formed. Finally, it can work by masking the bad breath with a stronger and pleasanter scent, like peppermint or...

Persistent Pigment Darkening

The persistent pigment darkening (PPD) response is a longer lasting response of individuals with pigmented skin after irradiation with UVA radiation. The response is evaluated 2-24 h after UVA exposure. The PPD protection factor, proposed by Chardon et al. 23 , is the ratio of the UVA dose required to produce the PPD response, with and without a sunscreen on the skin. The PPD test produces rapid results with moderately low doses of UVA. The response is stable and reproducible as in the case of...

Toothpaste That Targets Gingivitis

As of 2002, only one toothpaste on the U.S. market has been allowed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to claim antigingivitis properties. The toothpaste, a multicare product that is meant to fight plaque and cavities as well as gingivitis, targets the gum disease with a combination of sodium fluoride, triclosan, and a copolymer. Triclosan is an antibacterial agent often found in soaps and deodorants. As an ingredient in toothpaste, it inhibits the growth of bacteria in plaque. Bacteria...

Book Layout

This book was designed to examine how the concept of multifunctionality affects product development. It was compiled with the cosmetic formulator in mind and is intended to provide practical information that can help guide formulation efforts. The first part of this book is dedicated to specific formulation issues encountered during attempt to develop multifunctional products. To this end, Chapter 2 discusses the technical challenges related to formulating products with functions that once had...

Multifunctional Nail Polish Remover

The primary function of nail polish remover is the utilitarian task of quickly and efficiently removing nail polish. Of course, the formulator must recognize that there are two different types of polish remover in the category. The glue used for acrylic-based artificial nails is adversely affected by acetone, and an acetone- free remover is required for these products. The major solvent in the acetone-free category is ethyl acetate, which can be used for either natural nails or acrylics. At any...

Multifunctional Surfactants

The concept of multifunctionality brings to mind two separate ideas. First is the idea that a single component is able to replace many separate ingredients without sacrificing performance characteristics. Second is the concept of a single ingredient that offers varying functionality in a wide range of vastly different formulations. The latter is becoming a driving force for development, as large manufacturers are paring down their total number of inventoried raw materials. Not many...