Further reading

Posner, M.I. & Raichle, M.E. (1997). Images of Mind, 2nd edn. New York: Scientific American Library. A book that describes a number of ways that have been used to monitor changes in the activity of populations of neurons in the human brain, often associated with the performance of particular tasks. A good example is the technique of positron emission tomography, which has provided much valuable clinical information. This and other techniques monitor changes in the flow of blood to different brain regions, providing an indication of how active they are. Lewis, J.E. & Kristan, W.B. Jr (1998). A neuronal network for computing population vectors in the leech. Nature 391, 76-9. This describes work that extends the study of the interneurons responsible for controlling local bending movements in the leech by examining how information about the exact location of a touch to the animal's surface is coded by a population of neurons. Jellema, T. & Heitler, W.J. (1997). Adaptive reconfiguration of a reflex circuit during different motor programmes in the locust. J Comp Physiol A 180, 659-69. Before a jump by a locust, both the extensor and the flexor muscles of the hind leg tibiae contract together, building up tension for sudden release causing the jump. These muscles are activated in a different pattern during walking or scratching, and this paper reports one aspect of how the circuitry is modified, by altering the strengths of synapses from proprioceptors.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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