Contents

Preface ix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Nervous systems and the study of behaviour 1

1.2 Scope and limitations of neuroethology 2

1.3 Neural implications of ethological results 4

1.4 Sign stimuli in amphibians 9

1.5 Neuroethology of a releasing mechanism 11

1.6 Control theory and nervous systems 15

1.7 Conclusions 17 Further reading 18

2 Nerve cells 20

2.1 Basic organisation of nerve cells 20

2.2 Neuron physiology and action potentials 26

2.3 Synapses 30

2.4 Integration of postsynaptic potentials 33

2.5 Comparison of spikes and graded potentials 39

2.6 Additional mechanisms in integration 39

2.7 Conclusions 40 Further reading 41

3 Giant neurons and escape behaviour 42

3.1 Introduction 42

3.2 Giant neurons and the crayfish tail flip 44

3.3 The lateral giant interneuron: input and output 49

3.4 The decision to initiate startle behaviour 52

3.5 Executive functions of the lateral giant neuron 55

3.6 Summary of pathways in crayfish startle behaviour 59

3.7 Mauthner neurons and the teleost fast start 61

3.8 Excitation and inhibition in the Mauthner neuron 65

3.9 Outputs and executive functions of the Mauthner neuron 67

3.10 The startle reaction of a cockroach 69

3.11 Conclusions 74 Further reading 75

4 Capturing sensory information 76

4.1 Introduction 76

4.2 Basic receptor mechanisms: the campaniform organ 77

4.3 Summary of basic mechanisms 83

4.4 Essential properties of eyes 85

4.5 Design features of eyes 86

4.6 Photoreceptors and the receptor potential 91

4.7 Conclusions 96 Further reading 97

5 Stimulus filtering: vision and motion detection 99

5.1 Introduction 99

5.2 The insect visual system 100

5.3 Neuronal coding in the insect lamina 102

5.4 Optomotor neurons in flies 109

5.5 Figure-ground neurons of the lobula plate 114

5.6 A mechanism for directional selectivity 114

5.7 Summary of fly optomotor neurons 121

5.8 Collision warning neurons in the locust 122

5.9 Conclusions 127 Further reading 128

6 Hearing and hunting: sensory maps 129

6.1 Introduction 129

6.2 Prey localisation by hearing in owls 131

6.3 Auditory interneurons and sound localisation 135

6.4 Synthesising a neuronal map of auditory space 138

6.5 The echolocation sounds of bats 142

6.6 Interception of flying prey by bats 147

6.7 The auditory system and echolocation 148

6.8 Auditory specialisations for echo ranging 152

6.9 Auditory specialisations for Doppler shift analysis 158 6.10 Conclusions 162

Further reading 163

7 Programs for movement 165

7.1 Introduction 165

7.2 Locusts and their flight 166

7.3 The flight engine 167

7.4 The flight program 169

7.5 Generation of the flight rhythm 171

7.6 Interneurons of the flight generator 172

7.7 Proprioceptors and the flight motor pattern 178

7.8 Steering and initiating flight 182

7.9 Overall view of locust flight 184

7.10 Triggering and maintaining escape swimming in Tritonia 186

7.11 Swimming by young Xenopus tadpoles 191

7.12 Circuit reconfiguration in the stomatogastric ganglion of the lobster 194

7.13 Conclusions 198 Further reading 199

8 Circuits of nerve cells and behaviour 201

8.1 Introduction 201

8.2 Neuronal activity during different behaviours in Aplysia 202

8.3 Optical monitoring of neuronal activity 204

8.4 Local bending reflexes in the leech 206

8.5 Modelling a network of neurons 209

8.6 Local reflex movements of a locust's leg 212

8.7 Local spiking interneurons 213

8.8 Non-spiking interneurons 215

8.9 Organisation of neurons that control reflex movements 217 8.10 Conclusions 219

Further reading 220

9 Nerve cells and changes in behaviour 221

9.1 Introduction 221

9.2 Growth and metamorphosis in insects 222

9.3 Ecdysis in a hawk moth 222

9.4 Remodelling neurons during metamorphosis 225

9.5 Associative learning and the proboscis extension reflex in 228 honey bees

9.6 Neuronal pathways and conditioning 230

9.7 The role of an identified neuron in conditioning 232

9.8 Bird song and its production 235

9.9 The development of song 239

9.10 Neural centres for hearing and singing 240

9.11 Development of song nuclei 242

9.12 Conclusions 244 Further reading 246

References Index

248 262

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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