Special situations

DNA mixtures

A simple mixture of two individuals may be evaluated by comparing sizes of the fluorescent peaks of the electropherogram (Clayton et al., 1998). Otherwise, the likelihood ratio can be used (Weir et al., 1997; Evett et al., 1991), calculations based on the fluorescent peak area (Evett et al., 1998) or evaluating PCR stutter (Gill et al., 1998; Ladd et al., 2001).

Complex settings

Special considerations need to be observed in sex-change (sex-reversal) individuals. In this case the AMEL genotype would be in disagreement with the phenotype. Also, in individuals who have had a bone marrow transplant (BMT), there would be atypical results, such as a DNA mixture.

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