Info

AMI/ischaemia not drowning

cTn-T T

Acute respiratory distress

C3a T

Polytraumatized individuals

IL-11 T, HB-EGF T

(e) Blood origin

Traumatic vs. non-traumatic blood

Traumatic blood: non-traumatic blood, BE = 30 : 1 nasal haemorrhage, menstrual blood

Traumatic vs. non-traumatic blood

Traumatic blood: non-traumatic blood, BE = 30 : 1 nasal haemorrhage, menstrual blood protein markers for use in forensic and biometric applications 213 Table 13.1 Continued (e) Blood origin

Neonatal vs. adult blood

Adults Neonates

Menstrual vs. peripheral blood

Menstrual: peripheral bloodstains Postmortem: menstrual bloodstains Menstrual blood marker

HLA-DR (normal level) HLA-DR I

Abbreviations: 6-SMT, 6-sulphatoxymelatonin; a1AG, a1-acid glycoprotein; a1AT, ^-antitrypsin; a1FP, a1-fetoprotein; a2HSG, a2-HS glycoprotein; a2MG, a2-macroglobulin; A-diol-g, 17ß-androstanediol glucuronide; Adn, adiponectin; Alb, albumin; ApoAl, apolipoprotein A-1; ApoA2, apolipoprotein A-2; ApoB100, apolipoprotein B-100; ApoB48, apolipoprotein B-48; APPs, acute phase proteins; BE, beta-enolase; Cli, C1 inhibitor; C3aC, protein complement C3a; C3C, protein complement C3; C4bbp, C4b binding protein; (C5b-9) assembly of complement plasma glycoproteins; CDT, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin; CKMB, creatine kinase-MB; CN, calcineurin; CPn, ceruloplasmin; CRH, corticotrophin-releasing hormone; CRP, C-reactive protein; cTn, cardiac troponins; D, defensin; D-Dimer, a breakdown product of fibrin; EGF, epidermal growth factor; ES, E-selectin; F, folate; FacB, factor B; FacH, factor H; Fb, fibrinogen; FDP, fibrinogen degradation products; FH, fetal haemoglobin; FLRG, follistatin-related gene; FN, fibronectin; GASP1, growth and differentiation factor-associated protein-1; GDF8mp, myostatin (mature peptide); GDF8pp, myostatin propeptide; HB-EGF, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor; HC, homocysteine; HG, haptoglobin; HLA, human leucocyte antigens; HSP, heat shock protein(s); Hx, haemopexin; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule(s); IFN, interferon(s); In, insulin; IGFBP, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein; IGF-I, insulin-like growth factor I; IL, interleukin(s); IL-1Ra, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; Lp, leptin; LSA, liver-specific antigen; MBP, mannan-binding protein; MG, myoglobin; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase(s); MRP, migration inhibitory factor-related protein(s); MT, melatonin; PCT, procalcitonin; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; Pre-Alb, pre-albumin; Prl, prolactin; PSA, prostate-specific antigen; RBP, retinal-binding protein; SAA, serum amyloid-A; SHBG, sex hormone-binding globulin; SI, sucrase-isomaltase; sIL-2R, soluble interleukin-2 receptor; sIL-6R, soluble interleukin-6 receptor; SP-A, pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A; sTNF-RII, soluble TNF receptor II; TGFb, transforming growth factor-beta; TNFa/b, tumour necrosis factor alpha/ beta; Tr, transferrin; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor.

which the binding of labelled peptides, typically at saturated concentrations, competed with unlabelled samples). Figure 13.2 summarizes some of the most recent findings (see Soloviev and Terret, 2005, for a more detailed description). Based on these results, positively charged nylon appears to be the best substrate for most of the experiments, with the main advantages being high binding capacity and the absence of fluorescence quenching. The disadvantage of having a three-dimensional solid support is the increased washing time, but taking into account that the analyte would be small peptides, this would not have any adverse effect on the assay (as confirmed by our data, not shown).

An example of the affinity peptidomics analysis of blood samples is as follows. In order to simulate a forensic scenario, whole blood samples provided by vol-

Table 13.2 Twenty top forensic and biometric protein markers and their anti-peptide antibodies

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