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a All five samples matched correctly. As little as four antipeptide antibodies were sufficient (IL-1, ES, FN, SP-A) to match all five samples. b This is a single false-positive match (FN, Prl, TGF).

a All five samples matched correctly. As little as four antipeptide antibodies were sufficient (IL-1, ES, FN, SP-A) to match all five samples. b This is a single false-positive match (FN, Prl, TGF).

analysis techniques. There appears to exist a sufficient number of protein markers highly relevant to the forensics and biometrics fields. We have listed ~ 100 such markers (see above) and for many of these some quantitative data already exist regarding their up/down-regulation (lifestyle, trauma, disease, etc.). A serious meta-analysis of the literature is necessary for transforming the outcome of each study into a 'common currency', a measure of the effect size, which reflects the magnitude of the effect and could be compared across studies. Otherwise, existing literature data cannot be used reliably. However, even with a conservative estimate of a twofold expression difference for each marker (there are examples of x4000-fold differences) and 25% error in quantification, 100 different protein markers may yield very approximately up to 4100 different combinations (or expression states) of these markers. This simple estimate shows the huge potential of protein-based diagnostics and especially its application to forensics and biometrics.

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