Intracranial Cysts

The treatment of intra- and extraventricular cysts has also become significantly less invasive over time. Craniotomy is often effective because wide fenes-tration of septations is possible. However, this is obviously a maximally invasive technique. Others have advocated shunting of cysts (17). This can be associated with failures secondary to scarring and collapse of the cyst around the catheter, requiring surgical revision. Stereotactic aspiration is appealing owing to the minimally invasive nature of the procedure, but cyst recurrence is likely, secondary to closure of the small fenestration. Endoscopy coupled with an image guidance system allows for an accurate, safe approach and wide fenestration of the cysts. It combines the success of open fenestration techniques with the minimally invasive advantages offered by the improved optics of an endoscope. It is especially useful for suprasellar arachnoid cysts extending up to the third ventricle and causing hydrocephalus, where through and through fenestration is often successful at treating both the cyst and the hydrocephalus without need for craniotomy or shunting (Fig. 1; see Color Plate 6 following p. 112).

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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