Conclusion

There is an ongoing effort to develop MRI-guided interventional radiology and intraoperative imaging-based endoscopic or open surgical applications. So far, neurosurgery has benefited most from intraoperative MRI guidance. The introduction of real-time volumetric image updates has improved localization, and targeting and, most importantly, has resulted in complete tumor resections. Following this success in neurosurgery, new MRI-guided applications have been introduced for tumor treatment in the breast, liver, and prostate, as well as in the musculoskeletal system. Several percutaneous treatment methods like prostate brachytherapy have emerged. Thermal ablations in the brain (laser, RF), liver (laser, RF, and cryotherapy), and pelvis (laser treatment of fibroids) have been performed at multiple institutions. Today, among the thermal ablation methods, noninvasive image-guided focused ultrasound treatment has the most potential for tumor ablation but is also applicable to occlusion of blood vessels and to targeted drug delivery and gene therapy.

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