Adel M Malek md phd and Clemens M Schirmer md Introduction

Advances in the design and manufacturing of balloon and stent catheters made in the last decade have improved the operator's ability to negotiate the tortuous anatomy of the high cervical and intracranial carotid and vertebral arteries (1-3). These technical developments have led to the endovascular treatment of cerebrovascular pathologies previously considered unapproachable from a percutaneous approach. The ability to reach and treat intracranial stenotic lesions using miniature balloon-mounted microstents has provided a promising form of therapy for well-selected patients who have failed medical therapy and for those who are not candidates for surgical bypass grafting (4,5). Similarly, the availability of improved low-profile microstents has expanded the spectrum of intracranial aneurysms that are amenable to endovascular therapy to include the wide-necked and fusiform morphology (6,7).

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Reducing Blood Pressure Naturally

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