Five Steps to Mindfulness

Seven Minute Mindfulness

Seven Minute Mindfulness is an audio targeted at using the most natural way to maintain a good focus and the mindfulness people need for their daily activities. It combines the various religious methods to reach a balance in ensuring the users reach the highest point of mindfulness they can ever attain. To help them reach this height, the program had been prepared to take only seven minutes of your time. Pending the time of its usage, the users will not have to spend a lot of time dealing with it. The Seven Minute Mindfulness was designed to be used on any device. Getting started is simple and will take just a few minutes after ordering. It comes with various bonuses like The Seven Minute Mindfulness Guidebook (A digital manual that comes along with the audio version); Your Little Book Of Mindfulness Exercises (A digital guide to some exercises that can be practised in the house)The product is in a digital format of Audio messages and has been created at a very affordable price. In case it does not meet their demands or desires, the users have the right to ask for a refund of their money within three months. The implication is that they are given the chance to try it at home and if they suddenly become sceptical or grow cold feet, they will get a 100% refund. Read more...

Seven Minute Mindfulness Summary

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The origin of modern human consciousness

The fact that in cognitive terms the Cro-Magnons were already full-fledged modern humans when they entered Europe highlights the question of the geographical origins of the familiar modern human consciousness. The culture of the Cro-Magnons was distinguished above all by its richness of symbolic expression but it was not the first to yield such expressions. Just what it is that transmutes electrochemical signals in the brain into what we experience as consciousness is, of course, unknown and it is in any case beyond my particular expertise to speculate on the anatomical or physio-chemical basis of human consciousness, although we maybe certain that there is a structural modification of some kind at its core. In any case, we are limited by the fact that we cannot use modern instrumentation to peer into working ancient brains to determine differences in function between our brains and those of our closest non-symbolic relatives. And the living great apes are far too remote in common...

Conscious awareness

Books on memory tend to shy away from the discussion of consciousness and related issues. This is surprising on the one hand yet understandable on the other. It is surprising because the relation of consciousness to memory is of great importance in memory research ( amnesia, declarative memory, episodic memory), and conscious awareness is a major criterion in the zeitgeist taxonomy of memory systems. Avoiding the discussion of consciousness is, however, understandable, because despite many centuries of systematic thinking, and the fact that we all know subjectively what it is, consciousness is still an enigma. All authors point to the great difficulty in even defining it (e.g. Crick and Koch 1992 Searle 1992 Block 1995). Because we know so little about consciousness, many authors also believe that premature definitions are counterproductive. The purpose of this discussion is to outline briefly only very limited aspects of conscious awareness that are directly relevant to the...

The premises that underlie the selection of entries the adaptation and formulation of definitions and the views

I am a functionalist1 with a biologist's bias and with conscious awareness of other disciplines. My approach to memory research is guided by the following tenets (a) the function of the brain is to create and retain internal representations of the world that could guide behaviour (b) the function of learning is to permit the adaptation of internal representations to a changing world ( memory is the retention of these adaptations over time) (c) learning and memory require neural plasticity for their actualization and (d) learning and memory are system properties, made possible by the concerted operation of multiple levels of the system.

Personality and Self Reflection

Although mechanisms of self-protection, need gratification, and conflict resolution are consciously recognized at times, they operate primarily on an unconscious level. The goal is always the same to protect conscious awareness from overwhelming feelings of anxiety. Nevertheless, the defense mechanisms are rarely open to conscious reflection, at least without many sessions of psychotherapy. As such, they often contribute to vicious circles, intensifying the very problems they were intended to avoid. Some defense mechanisms are simple, others are complex, and still others, convoluted. This domain of personality is associated most closely with the psychodynamic perspective on personality.

Nondualist Explanations of Consciousness

The field of consciousness studies has been quite busy lately. There seem to be two major camps on the mind-body problem those who believe that we already have the tools we need to explain the mind, and those who believe that we don't and perhaps never will. McGinn is in the pessimistic camp, as is Nagel (1975) and others. I'm an optimist.

Scientific Research Programs and the Study of Consciousness

The sad truth about the current state of consciousness studies appears to be that there is nothing even remotely resembling a scientific research program on consciousness. It is easy to see why this is the case There are no shared background assumptions on the basic metaphysical and methodological questions of consciousness. Let me mention a prominent example of this metaphysical heterogeneity inherent in consciousness studies. One central figure in the field, Daniel Dennett (1991), basically says that subjective consciousness does not really exist, whereas another, David Chalmers (1996), suggests that consciousness might be everywhere even very simple physical systems such as electrons, stones, or thermostats have some sort of consciousness. In addition to these rather extreme ideas, a considerable number of other more or less exotic metaphysical views on consciousness can be found in the field.

Toward a Biological Research Program on Consciousness

What makes this problem especially severe is the fact that many, if not most, philosophers within consciousness studies hold views that are incompatible with the suggested biological research program on consciousness. Consequently, such philosophers have already dismissed this partic

The Problem of Finding an Appropriate Metaphysical Basis for the Biological Research Program on Consciousness

Assumptions shared by those working within the program. The formulation of such basic metaphysical assumptions would be a suitable job for philosophers involved in the study of consciousness. However, there appears to be a strange gap between the philosophical and the empirical approaches to consciousness Many current philosophical views that admit the reality of consciousness nevertheless are not consistent with the basic assumptions of a biological research program on consciousness. A number of influential philosophers working within the field of consciousness studies deny that we could ever get an empirical grip on consciousness by studying the brain as a biological system, either because consciousness is not seen as a natural biological phenomenon or because it is not believed to be located in the brain.

Essential Hypertension

Based upon these findings, it seems reasonable to suggest that lowering blood pressure is a necessary, but not sufficient, approach to reducing CVD in patients in whom essential hypertension is present as one of the manifestations of the IRS. Thus, at the simplest, the choice of drugs used to lower blood pressure should be selected with awareness of their possible deleterious effect on the adverse CVD risk factors often present in patients high blood pressure. For example, it is probably not the best approach to treat a patient, who has a high TG and a low HDL-C concentration, with more than 12.5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide, and in the absence of a previous myocardial infarct, to use a beta-blocker. More importantly, aggressive treatment of the dyslipidemia, if present, seems to be highly justified. It must be emphasized that there is no evidence that this approach will decrease CVD risk in hypertriglyceridemic patients with essential hypertension. On the other hand, given the evidence...

The General Linear Model

When we learned statistics, one of the mantras we were taught to mumble, as we searched for inner peace, was ANOVA (analysis of variance) and regression are just subsets of the general linear model. Then, just when it looked like analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was the ideal general method, someone noted that it was also a special case and that there was a more general way of looking at things, which in turn was called the general linear model (GLM). At the time, we had no idea what it actually meant, but it sounded profound and dazzled them at frat parties. Indeed, when we wrote the first and second editions of PDQ Statistics, we still didn't know, and we passed off the explanation as being much too complicated for our dear readers. Well, we finally figured it out. So here goes

An open problem a mystery

skills, for space, for language, for facts, for events, for the self ( taxonomy). Some of these systems may have evolved at first in response to a certain selective pressure but later became adapted to new needs or even paved the way to new faculties and capabilities. Will new memory systems emerge to cope with the new technological environment, what will their capabilities be, and which new opportunities will they open for brain and behaviour 10. And, finally What is consciousness ( conscious awareness) Similarly to enigma 1 above, this issue definitely transcends memory research, yet is intimately related to the function and mechanisms of declarative, particularly episodic memory, and to the role of attention and memory in the binding of our personality over time. Furthermore, to what degree are other species consciously aware of themselves and the world ( anthropomorphism) Will we ever be able to really know what is it like to be a bat (Nagel 1974) And will smart robots (Moravec...

The brain system that endows the subject with the capacity to perform 12 above

Do animals have it If one posits autonoetic awareness as a critical criterion for episodic memory, the issue of whether animals go on mental time travels becomes complicated indeed and by some accounts insolvable. Investigators who address the problem in non-human species almost always set a more modest, yet still admirable, goal to prove that the animal has 'episodic-like' memory, which does not presuppose conscious awareness as a defining criterion. An interesting strategy, which is actually recommended as a general strategy in memory research, is to look for the behavioural ecology of the species, and search for natural situations which could benefit from episodic-like memory. Clayton et al. (2001) list a number of potential candidate systems. One is brood possible for us to identify the conscious awareness of mental time travel, if it ever exists, in other species Can we ever come to know how is it like to be a bat (Nagel 1974), particularly, a nostalgic bat Some say that we will...

Other Types Of Exercise

Yoga has become a very popular activity for many people. Yoga for people with MS can be beneficial in improving overall flexibility and body awareness. In addition, yoga is performed at the level of the participant, so fatigue and balance problems can be minimized. Yoga can be performed through organized classes or by using video tapes to guide you through the different poses. When researching yoga classes, discuss with the instructor any limitations you may have and how they will be accommodated during the class. Many MS clinics and local chapters of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society offer yoga classes specifically for people with MS.

The Psychodynamic Perspective

A variety of theorists have made important contributions. Combining influences from economics, culture, and existentialism, Fromm (1947) described the hoarding orientation. Such persons build a protective wall around themselves to prevent anything new from entering. As if always expecting a famine or disaster, they hoard, save, and fortify themselves for lean times and, like the anal-retentive described previously, only rarely share anything with others. For them, orderliness signifies an existential victory over the ungovernable complexities of life, giving them a feeling of mastery and control over the world (see Focus on History box for more information on Fromm's scheme of character orientations). Like other theorists before and since, Rado (1959) described the compulsive as overly concerned with minutiae, details, and petty formalities. He also noted continuities between normality and pathology. Thus, the scrupulously honest person may give way to the hypocrite, and sensitivity...

Problems with conversion and dissociative disorder Problems with dissociative amnesia

Dissociation occurs with the loss from conscious awareness of material of which the person was formerly aware and the possibility of recovering this material later (because the loss is not due to normal forgetting). Yet there is also suspicion that fugue states are artificially created. Hacking (39 gives a clear account of the origins of this diagnosis in the work of Charcot and suggests that it originated as a matching diagnosis for dual personality (as multiple personality disorder was known at the time). In France and Germany, where the diagnosis of fugue quickly became popular after Charcot's description, there were many cases among the standing conscript armies. The typical fugueur was a man the typical case of multiple personality disorder was a women. Both conditions arose because doctors accepted their reality and both declined in number when doctors became sceptical about them. The idea was developed in a historical review by Philippe Tissie in a thesis published in 1887 and...

Consciousness as Modular

An alternative conception of consciousness is one of multiple, independent, dissociable perceptual modules. Here the neurobiological ontology takes place at the level of wheel, chassis, engine, and dashboard rather than car. In this conception of consciousness, it makes sense to talk of visual consciousness as dissociable from auditory consciousness, for example, and of multiple independent micro-consciousnesses (Zeki and Bartels 1998) a consciousness-for-color, a consciousness-for-motion, a consciousness-for-faces, and so forth. Each consciousness-for-category has a separate neural correlate (see Figure 14.1b). Once again, the perceptual modularity has no implications for its neurobiological implementation. Each specialized neural correlate could be colocalized within the relevant functionally specialized cortex, localized elsewhere, be distributed across a network, or represent a nonlocalized process. The neural correlate of consciousness-for-color is

The Cognitive Perspective

In contrast, detached from self as well as others, schizoids often show little awareness of their internal world. They are impoverished socially and lack any curiosity about their own nature, so they have only vague notions about who they are, where they are going, or what their goals might be. Doris and Leonard, for example, have a vaguely infantile quality. When asked what they are like as a person, their descriptions are brief and superficial. Their lack of clarity is neither elusive nor protective, but simply indicates the facts as they know them. Severe schizoids do not normally interact with others and do not understand the few interpersonal interactions they do have. Accordingly, they have few reflected appraisals to internalize, no motivation to elaborate on them, and, therefore, no sharply boundaried self that might be immediately accessible to conscious awareness about which to report.

Valerie Gray Hardcastle

Consciousness studies, like most areas of study, is replete with cottage industries and fads. Last year it was the Hard Problem (see Chalmers 1996), the follow-up to the Explanatory Gap (see Levine 1983). This year, perhaps in response to the difficulties in convincing skeptics that the Hard Problem is really an Easy Problem or No Problem at All, finding the neural correlates of consciousness (the NCC) is in vogue. At first blush this might seem a more reasonable puzzle to tackle than something like the Hard Problem, since being a correlate is ontologically neutral. All we are doing is looking for the physiological differences between someone who is conscious and someone who is not. Seeking the NCC is feasible even if one has not solved or dissolved the Hard Problem.

A lasting shift in the set point of a homeostatic system

3This argument fits the anti-Panglossian paradigm, see 'paradigm. 4No assumptions are being made here concerning 'conscious awareness of this potential causality, or the validity of the assumed causality. See also Macphail (1996) and Heyes and Huber (2000). 5This is an appropriate point to note that many authors distinguish functional from structural plasticity. The truth is that 'functional' plasticity also involves modification in some hardware component(s) of the system, hence is structural. It is all a matter of the level of 'reduction. What those who speak about structural plasticity mean, is morphological plasticity those structural changes in the tissues that are detectable down to the level of electron microscopy (see example in 'development, Figure 25, p. 81).

Towards An Integrated Model Of Consciousness

Consciousness is likely the result of integrated function of multimodal states of the brain. While anyone who attempts to explain consciousness is doomed to be considered reductionalistic, certain aspects can be explained. These isolated components provide at least a glimpse into brain organization and allow for hypotheses about how consciousness arises out of the various processes. There are certain prerequisites to conscious awareness these include alertness and the ability to attend to certain functions. It is essential that there are interconnections of the various processes or components of awareness. When inter-regional coactivations have not been shown by functional neuro-imaging, it might be that these tools are too crude to note the various subtle but essential interconnections. The mystery is that consciousness is more than the sum of its parts. Strategies are needed that go beyond existing approaches.

Distribution Of Prx Repair Enzymes

A recent BLAST search using the human Srx (hSrx) sequence revealed the presence of Srx in organisms ranging from cyanobacterium and baker's yeast to human (representative alignment in Fig. 2) with at least 30 sequence identity. The active site motif GCHR containing the catalytic Cys99 (human numbering scheme) is strictly conserved. The alignment suggests that the Srxs vary predominantly at their N-termini. The plant Arabidopsis thaliana contains a N-terminal targeting sequence for the chloroplast (Liu et al., 2006). Human Srx contains a glycine-rich sequence (35 13 of 37 residues) that is readily removed by limited tryptic digest and leaves the remainder of the protein intact and active (Jonsson et al., 2005). This truncated form of hSrx approaches the size of Nostoc Srx (species PCC7120) that contains only 87 amino acids and represents the minimal catalytic core needed for sulfinic acid reductase activity. It is at the present moment unclear if the extended N-termini of human, rat...

A behavioural routine as in 1 acquired gradually via repetitive experience

Being independent of conscious awareness, habit is by definition a non*declarative (implicit) type of memory (Hirsh 1974 Mishkin et al. 1984 Squire and Zola 1996 skill, taxonomy). As opposed to declarative memory, which is subserved by cortico limbic circuits, habits are subserved by corticostriatal circuits, i.e. reciprocal connections between the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia (Mishkin et al. 1984 Salmon and Butters 1995 Knowlton et al. 1996 Jog et al. 1999). Two selected studies, one in the rat, the other in Homo sapiens, will serve to illustrate the conserved role of the corticostriatal circuits in the formation and expression of habit in mammals. sunny or rainy, on the basis of four visual patterns, each linked to the weather conditions with a prefixed probability, unknown to the subject in advance. On each trial, one, two, or three of these cues are presented side by side on the computer screen, and the response on each trial is reinforced by visual and auditory feedback....

The type of knowledge that subserves this proficiency

The term 'mental skill' should be avoided as all skills are mental. Skills could be performed in the absence of conscious awareness, hence, are classified as non declarative memory (Squire and Zola 1996). Their acquisition, however, may either involve conscious awareness, i.e. be declarative or explicit, or be independent of conscious awareness, i.e. nondeclarative or implicit.

The Evolutionary Neurodevelopmental Perspective

With Chase, we see an example of narcissistic personality disorder where substance abuse figures prominently. Like other narcissists, Chase is grandiose and entitled. The way he sees it, his novel will be an unmitigated, overwhelming success. Consequently, he feels justified spending all his time working on it and no time with his wife. Regardless, she is expected to cater to his every need, to the point of being his sex slave. If Chase seems less pathological than Leonardo or Gerald, it is because his insecurities are closer to conscious awareness, tempering his grandiosity. Moreover, Gerald's mother simply set a high standard, and Gerald is struggling to justify her faith in him. Chase's parents, at least his father, apparently were both exalting and condemning at the same time. As a result, Chase's personality has a dual aspect. A superficial grandiosity keeps him floating along, but underneath, he can't make up his mind whether he's the boy

Variations of the Avoidant Personality

Avoidant Personality Subtypes

Thus totally interiorized, the feelings that motivated their initial withdrawal reverberate unremittingly. More and more, they cannot tolerate being themselves and seek to completely withdraw from their own conscious awareness, an existential abnegation of selfhood. Some become increasingly neglectful psychologically and physically, even to the point of neglecting basic hygiene. Some plunge into despair and are driven toward suicide, abandoning life as a means of ridding themselves of inner anguish and horror of their own identities. Others regress into a state of emotional numbness in which they are completely disconnected from themselves. In particularly severe cases, the structure of consciousness itself may split or fragment, leaving a regressive disorganization reminiscent of the schizotypal personality. As this process proceeds, self-deserting avoidants become outside spectators, observing from without the drama of their frightening transformation.

Freuds theory of the mental apparatus motivation structure and functioning Unconscious mental processes the topographic

Freud's starting point(4) was his study of hysterical patients and the discovery that, when he found a way to help these patients piece together a coherent account of the antecedents of their conversion symptoms, dissociative phenomena, and pathological affective dispositions, all these psychopathological phenomena could be traced to traumatic experiences in their past that had become unconscious. That is, these traumatic experiences continued to influence the patients' functioning despite an active defensive mechanism of 'repression' that excluded them from the patient's conscious awareness. In the course of a few years Freud abandoned his early efforts to recover repressed material by means of hypnosis, and replaced hypnosis with the technique of 'free association', an essential aspect of psychoanalytic technique until the present time. Freud instructed his patients to eliminate as much as possible all 'prepared agendas', and to try to express whatever came to mind, while attempting...

The Interpersonal Perspective

Because schizoids are socially detached, they are often perceived as insensitive, cold, and humorless. Schizoids are indeed insensitive but in the same way that a scale might not display your weight correctly. They are not harsh or callous by nature. Normal persons manage their interpersonal presentation automatically at a level below conscious awareness. Social perception and reaction are so routine that social encounters run smoothly. Such abilities normally begin to develop at birth, with the attachment between mother and infant, and continue to grow in sophistication over most of the life span.

Carl G Jung Jungs Contribution to Personality Theory

Histronie Wut

Interacting with his famous extroversion-introversion polarity, Jung proposed that thinking-feeling and sensing-intuiting form four additional psychological modes of adaptation or functioning (Jung, 1921). Thinking refers to logical and directed thought, a tendency to approach situations in a cool, detached, and rational fashion feeling refers to a tendency to value your own subjective, emotional appraisals over any rational process. Because feelings very often have multiple contradictory aspects that are deeply felt and have to be figured out, this mode need not refer to impulsive emotionality. Sensation refers to stimuli experienced immediately by the senses. As an orientation, it refers to a tendency to be oriented to the events of the present moment, without reinterpretation or inference. Intuition is the analogue of sensation in the internal world. Like sensation, its products are given immediately to consciousness, without awareness of any intermediate process. As an...

Intentionality development and content

On the other hand, it would be agreed that the person's self-report is no infallible guide here. Absence of an account of perceived real threat by the person so far hardly counts against there being one. The cognitive processing which permeates anxiety is not necessarily conscious, in the sense of conscious awareness or verbal report (Tyrer et al. 1978 Dixon 1981 Kemp-Wheeler and Hill 1987). The assumption that anxiety has intentionality, specifically perception of threat, is thus independent of whether or not the person is aware of, or can say, what the perceived danger is. In general, the information-processing which mediates between perception and action (affective responses and behaviour) may be unconscious, in the sense of being unavailable for, and perhaps misrepresented by, self-report (Sections 1.2.2,1.3.2).

The systematic grouping of entities into categories according to some method of arrangement or distribution

A cardinal criterion in the prevailing taxonomy of long-term memory is that of conscious awareness, i.e. whether the information is accessible to conscious recollection or not. This type of dichotomy was imported into modern neuroscience from philosophy. Kant (1781) distinguished representations with or without consciousness de Biran (1804) spoke of'mechanical memory', in which recall is a 'simple repetition of movements', and 'representative memory', in which recall involves 'the clear appearance of . (an) idea' Bergson (1908) differentiated between habit, the 'memory that repeats', and 'memory per excellence', or 'the memory that imagines' and Ryle (1949) distinguished 'knowing how' from 'knowing that'. 'Knowing how' is also known as 'practical knowledge', and 'knowing that' as 'propositional' or 'factual knowledge' (Bernecker and Dretske 2000).

Looking at Significant Stressors What Else Can Account for Somatic Symptomatology

Sometimes, distortions of reality are corroborated by two or more individuals because of the personality dynamics of their relationship. A narcissistic member of a couple may damn his masochistic counterpart for her failings, while the masochist sits in agreement. To an interviewer focused only on verbal report, the masochist is the problem and, therefore, the proper focus of treatment. Functionally, however, the masochist is what family therapists refer to as the identified patient, the scapegoat whose symptoms help a pathological system limp along. Both subjects distort reality at a level below conscious awareness. The influence of personality style factors in limiting the validity of information, then, extends across both the patient and other informants.

Indications and contraindications Areas of application

Problem-solving skill training attempts to remedy the deficits in cognitive, problem-solving processing abilities that are often found in aggressive young people. One of the best known programmes was developed by Shure and Spivack at Hahnemann University in Philadelphia.(26) They suggested that successful social interaction depends on several skills 'alternative thinking', the ability to generate multiple solutions to problems 'means-end thinking', the ability to choose the desired outcome to a social exchange and 'consequential thinking', the ability to consider the likely consequences of actions. To foster these skills they developed a programme of lessons for preadolescent children that included games, discussion, and group-interaction techniques. The programme has an emphasis on the development of simple word concepts that are necessary for subsequent problem-solving. These words emphasize that there are alternative ways of solving a problem ('I can hit him or tell him I am cross....

A figure of speech in which one entity is described in terms of another

Visual metaphors of brain and memory often intermingle with spatial or written record metaphors. They refer to perception and acquisition in terms of passively perceiving the world or actively throwing light on it (Abrams 1953), and to retrieval as illumination of items in mind (e.g. by an internal searchlight, Baars 1998). Visual metaphors are common when the discussion involves attention and conscious awareness (ibid.). Whereas the images in some of the above metaphors, e.g. the storehouse, remain rather similar over the ages, technological metaphors reflect the machines and gadgets of their period. They tend to be more dynamic than spatial metaphors and describe multiple phases in learning and memory. Examples of technological metaphors include hydraulic networks in the Renaissance (Descartes 1633), and electronics and computers nowadays (Churchland and Sejnowski 1992). Operational and system research by the Allies in

The alert state required for the above

A common connotation of attention is conscious awareness (definition 2). Does this mean that attentive nonhuman species can be consciously aware of their dids, and if so, which species Definitions 1 and 3 above fit situations in which conscious awareness cannot be proven or even assumed. Another definition, suggested by Hebb, also does not specify consciousness 'central facilitation of the activation of one assembly by the previous one' (Hebb 1949) this view of attention depends, however, on the validity of the notion of cell assembly. As far as the relationship of attention to conscious awareness is concerned, it is noteworthy that on the one hand, even humans may not be aware of activity in a cortical area assumed to be involved in some atten-tional tasks (Crick and Koch 1995) on the other hand, some degree of conscious awareness is expected to exist in other species as well (example in classical conditioning). It is therefore useful to regard attention as involving a spectrum of...

Dualism and Its Discontents

The issues surrounding the relation between computation and mind are becoming relevant because of the complete failure of dualism as an explanation of human consciousness. Dualism is the doctrine that people's minds are formed of nonphysical substances that are associated with their

The memory system that subserves the above

For facts ('semantic'), and memory for episodes ('episodal', 'autobiographical' Tulving 1983 episodic memory). Episodic memory, and sometimes semantic memory, single-trial learning, yet could be modified over time, either by additional facts, new experiences, or retrieval in new contexts. Episodic memory includes information about an experience locked to a particular time and place, whereas semantic memory is not locked to specific coordinates in these dimensions. Some authors classify 'episodic' apart from 'declarative' (Tulving and Markowitsch 1998). Similarly, in episte-mology, 'knowledge by acquaintance', i.e. of people, places, and things, is distinguished from propositional or factual knowledge (Bernecker and Dretske 2000). The term 'cognitive memory' is also occasionally used for recollection with conscious awareness (Mishkin et al. 1997). 'Explicit' and 'implicit' (Graf and Schacter 1985 Schacter 1987) are sometimes used in the literature instead of 'declarative' and...

Poppers criticism of materialism

Life emerged from matter, consciousness from life, and objective knowledge (especially scientific theories) from human consciousness (Popper & Eccles 1985 11). Popper calls the physical and biological world World 1 , the set of all mental states World 2 , and the set of all cultural products of human intelligence - from myths to works of art, scientific theories, other abstract objects, and social institutions - World 3 . Given these definitions he maintains that the second world emerged from the first world and the third world from the second world. In other words, life is the result of physical and chemical processes, consciousness (that Popper seems to identify with 'mentality' at large in an Cartesian vein) emerged from life at a certain point of the evolution of species, and only through the intelligent activity of human beings, that is, by repeated mental acts, all products of human culture were brought about. Therefore, there is no life without matter, no minds without brains,...

Recognition testA test situation in which the subject judges the familiarity or recency of a stimulus

The aforementioned types of knowledge are reflected in an influential model of recognition, called the dual-process model (Juola et al. 1971 Mandler 1980 Jacoby 1991 Yonelinas 1999). As the name implies, this model depicts recognition as being subserved by two qualitatively different processes. One process is the judgement of familiarity it is generally considered to be automatic and fast.1 The other process is termed recollection, or search, or retrieval.2 It is considered to be intentional and slower, and refers to the retrieval of information about the target and its context. This complements the familiarity decision, and identifies specific attributes of the target and the context. The familiarity process is also labelled K (for 'know') and the recollection process R (for 'remembe ). The terms 'recollection', 'remember', and 'know' connote conscious awareness, and indeed, the use of these terms in the context of recognition stems from human memory research, where remembering and...

A procedure or technique for the analysis of a phenomenon process or mechanism a test

Lack of an appropriate assay may hinder the development of a field or the resolution of a major research problem. For example, some types of behavioural assays engage the hippocampus and are sensitive to hippocampal damage. However, at the time of writing there is still no satisfying behavioural assay to tap exclusively into hippocampal function in primates. Such a task will be very useful in clarifying the role of the hippocampus in memory. The hippocampus can also be invoked to illustrate a potential problem in the use of assays. This is the problem of 'circular argumentation'. Thus, given that a hippocampal lesion impairs performance on task X under condition A, some investigators are quick to use task X under conditions other than A to determine whether the hippocampus is involved, as if task X is an established probe for hippocampal involvement. Failure or success on task X, however, may result from parameters specific to condition A that do not generalize to other conditions of...

Classical conditioning

Circuits and possibly mechanisms ( algorithm). Compare, for example, trace conditioning to delay conditioning (Figure 14) whereas in delay conditioning the CS and US overlap on-line part of the time, in trace conditioning, the subject must hold off-line information about the CS before the US onset. Therefore, trace conditioning is expected to engage brain regions that are not required for conditioning that depends on on-line information only. This was indeed found (Moyer et al. 1990 Clark and Squire 1998 conscious awareness, declarative learning). This also raises the question whether classical conditioning should be considered as a distinct type of memory system, specifically, a nondeclarative memory system, as is advocated by the current zeitgeist ( taxonomy).

Early Historical Forerunners

Because self-reports measure what is accessible to conscious awareness, Bornstein (1993) asked whether the difference between males and females would be found when using projective tests intended to tap motives outside conscious awareness, in the realm of the unconscious, not available for self-report.

Variations of the Schizoid Personality

Although more characteristic of the avoidant personality development, children subjected to intense hostility and rejection very early in life may protectively withdraw so completely that their native capacity for feeling and relating to others becomes permanently reduced. Here, youngsters otherwise capable of normal interpersonal adjustment learn that such desires and emotions yield only anguish and disillusionment. Unlike the basic schizoid, some capacity for feeling and relating remains with the remote schizoid, but the wish for affective bonding has been so completely repressed that it no longer enters conscious awareness. Remote schizoids who are more severely impaired may also possess features of the schizotypal personality.

Psychological Treatments

In general, those older adults with a personality disorder are also not well suited to the stage-appropriate tasks of life review and self-reflection (Solomon, Falette, & Stevens, 1982). They have great difficulty identifying or tolerating affect they are prone to acting it out or in rather than being able to bring affect to conscious awareness and to consider it objectively. Also, the individual often has had a long history replete with failure and conflict, so encouraging a deep and meaningful review may be harmful rather than helpful.

David J Chalmers

What does it mean to be a neural correlate of consciousness At first glance, the answer might seem to be so obvious that the question is hardly worth asking. An NCC is a neural state that directly correlates with a conscious state, or that directly generates consciousness, or something like that. One has a simple image When your NCC is active, perhaps your consciousness turns on in a corresponding way. But a moment's reflection suggests that the idea is not completely straightforward, and that the concept needs some clarification.

The unconscious

While declarative or autobiographical memory involves remembered events and narratives of one's life, procedural memory stores the 'how' of executing sequences of actions, such as motor skills. Once guitar-playing or bicycle-riding has been mastered, no conscious recall is necessary when one sits down with a guitar or jumps on a bicycle. The schema referred to as unconscious internal-object relations are to some extent procedural memories repeated again and again in a variety of interpersonal situations. They are non-conscious, but not dynamically unconscious, in the sense of being defensively banished from conscious awareness. The notion that much of mental life is unconscious is one that is most challenged by psychoanalytical critics, but it is also one that is extensively validated by literature from experimental psychology 3) Research subjects who have bilateral lesions to the hippocampus have great difficulty learning that two discrete events are connected, but their emotional...

Antti Revonsuo

The field of consciousness studies is full of talk about the science of consciousness. For example, the landmark conferences in Tucson strive Toward a Science of Consciousness the professional organization in the field is the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness and the journal Consciousness and Cognition offers a natural-science approach to consciousness. However, there is little discussion on what it actually requires for a field to constitute a true science of consciousness. Indeed, despite all the talk, there is still no such coherent, established branch of science.

Conclusions

If, instead of just talking about the science of consciousness, the field of consciousness studies truly wants to proceed toward it, then we should realize what is required for a field to constitute a branch science. In this paper I have argued that we need a biological research program on consciousness a systematic, empirically based, natural-science approach which sees consciousness as a real, natural, biological phenomenon in the brain. This program is to include a view of consciousness that can be taken seriously as an empirical hypothesis.

Motor disorders

More dramatic than subtle motor incoordination are the rare catatonic motor disorders. Catatonia entails disturbance of voluntary motor activity and posture. The level of activity can be either decreased or increased. In extreme cases of hypoactivity the patient is in a stupor, and is unresponsive to stimuli, but usually retains conscious awareness. In hyperactive states the patient often maintains a stereotypic activity for prolonged periods. Even less common are conditions such as waxy flexibility, in which a patient's body can be moulded into an unusual posture, which is then sustained for lengthy periods, and echopraxia, in which the patient mimics the voluntary motor actions of the examiner.

Similar Suggestions

We discovered the third suggestion in a brief report of a meeting on consciousness (Journal of Consciousness Studies 4 1997 396), outlining the ideas of Richard Stevens (1997). In brief, from periods of closely observed introspection he concluded that Conscious awareness is essentially perceptual. It consists entirely of perceptual images. These may be directly stimulated by outside events or internally generated in the more elusive and less well defined form of remembered or imagined percepts.

Investigation

Dissociative disorders are uncommon but may be associated with impaired conscious awareness (fugue) or memory (amnesia). Mixed pictures may occur. The characteristic course of these disorders is of sudden onset, short course, and sudden termination. They may therefore be mistaken at first for delirium. In dissociative states, however, the disturbance of consciousness is often associated with a loss of sense of personal identity, which is rare in delirium. Likewise, amnesia tends to be relatively circumscribed to episodic (past personal) memory, with semantic (past impersonal) memory remaining relatively intact.87 Such a picture is not seen in delirium. In many cases of dissociative disorder a psychosocial stressor may be identified, which may have meaningful connections with an event in the patient's distant past.

Self and personality

Continuity and consistency in conscious awareness and control of mental states and action, are closely linked to the concepts of self, subjectively experienced, and person or personality, as experienced by others. The extent to which individuals vary from situation to situation, and the extent to which they show consistency has been a source of extended and unresolved debate (Mischel 1968, 1973, 1979 Bem 1983). However in summary the evidence may be taken to indicate that there is both variability and consistency, and that in general the consistency is less in individual behaviours than in underlying organizational principles. Personality is 'that which gives order and congruence to all different kinds of behaviour in which the individual engages' (Hall and Lindzey 1978) and personality traits are 'enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself and are exhibited in a wide range of important social and personal contexts' (American...

Learning

The presence or absence of conscious awareness is a major criterion in the zeitgeist taxonomy of learning and memory. Suffice it to note in the present context that conscious awareness in learning does not entail conscious awareness in retention and retrieval, and vice versa ( declarative memory). When information is acquired in an incidental manner, without awareness of what has been learned, the process is termed 'implicit learning', as opposed to 'explicit learning' (Seger 1994 Whittlesea and Wright 1997). The distinction between 'implicit' and 'explicit' learning has been used extensively in tasks involving rule learning in

Memory

'Memory' could be subjected to multiple taxonomies, based on different dimensions, such as duration, associativity, conscious awareness, and behavioural function (e.g. Augustine 400 de Biran 1804 James 1890 Bergson 1908 Hebb 1949 Ryle 1949 Tolman 1949 Milner et al. 1998). Such taxonomies are exemplified under learning above. The rationale and evidence for selected classifications of memory are detailed in the relevant entries in this book. At this point, it is useful to consider briefly only a few general properties of memory.

The Souls of Robots

If we list the attributes we associate with human consciousness in order from those that are intrinsically associated with consciousness to those that seem peculiarly human, the list might look like that shown in figure 6.1. Suppose we assume for the sake of argument that robots will eventually have agility (the ability to manipulate physical objects gracefully) and intelligence (the ability to find solutions to difficult problems). Then, I claim, they will inevitably have free will, emotion, and phenomenal consciousness (experiences with qualia). I argued as much in chapter 3. However, they might have all those things and still not have much linguistic ability. Language appears to be a separate faculty. They might also seem intelligent but not creative, although, as I argued in chapter 2, creativity is not an ability, but a term of praise for intellectual feats that we admire. On the other hand, I don't see any reason why robots couldn't have language and, on occasion, be creative.

Priming

It is important to re-emphasize that 'priming' covers heterogeneous processes, which are expected to be subserved by multiple circuits and mechanisms in the brain.3 The common denominator to all these processes is the nonconscious use-dependent facilitation of the processing and retrieval of an item.4 Sensitization also facilitates future processing, retrieval, and performance, but is nonspecific, whereas priming depends on the specificity of the item(s) presented in the study phase. In some of its properties, such as the independence of conscious awareness, priming resembles habit and skill. In others, it resembles declarative memory it provides the brain with specific, discriminative, and precise information about events in the world. Tulving (1983) speculated that in performing priming experiments, we tap into memory capabilities that had emerged in phylogenesis after procedural memory systems but before declarative memory, and have played an important part in the life of early...

Beforehand

Tells him that young geese follow the farmer around without previous conditioning or training. If Lorenz were to add that the young goose knows that it should follow the farmer, or that the farmer is a friend, philosophical ears would be pricked' (Cooper 1972). However, first of all, 'knowledge' is here used in its most reductive connotation, not necessarily involving conscious awareness ( internal representation) second, irrespective of the status of philosophical ears, the question whether animals are 'consciously aware' or not is not yet settled ( declarative memory).

Alertness

Perception refers to the further processing of sensory information, providing a symbolic concept of what is happening in the external world. Usually, perception overrides sensation, so that we are aware of an external event or object rather than the fact that we are receiving a sensation. In object vision, the image is segmented into background and foreground and the impressions are fused into shapes and objects. The conscious appreciation of the object involves reception by the primary visual cortex, processing in the visual cortex, transfer to visual association areas and links with visual memory stores. In addition, the focusing of attention is necessary for awareness to occur. If the primary visual cortex is destroyed or isolated (even though it may be activated), conscious awareness does not occur. This is not to deny the occurrence of blindsight (a meaningful response to the visual stimulus, even though the patient denies the awareness of the stimulus). This illustrates the...

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