1. Avery, O. T., MacLeod, C. M., and McCarty, M. Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of Pneumococcus types. Induction of transformation by a desoxyri-bonucleic acid fraction isolated from Pneumococcus Type III. J. Exp. Med. 79:137-158, 1944.

2. McCarty, M. and Avery, O. T. Studies of the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of pneumococcal types II. Effect of desoxyribonulcease on the biological activity of the transforming substance. J. Exp. Med. 83:89-96, 1946.

3. Watson, J. D. and Crick F. H. Molecular structure of nucleic acids; a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid. Nature 171:737-738, 1953.

4. Wilkins, M. H., Stokes, A. R., and Wilson, H. R. Molecular structure of deoxypentose nucleic acids. Nature 171:738-740, 1953.

5. Franklin, R. E. and Gosling, R. G. Molecular structure of nucleic acids. Molecular configuration in sodium thymonucleate. 1953. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 758:16-17, 1995.

6. Watson, J. D. and Crick, F. H. The structure of DNA. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 18:123-131, 1953.

7. Franklin, R. E. and Gosling, R. G. Evidence for 2-chain helix in crystalline structure of sodium deoxyribonucleate. Nature 172:156-157, 1953.

8. Jacobson, B. Hydration structure of deoxyribonucleic acid and its physicochemical properties. Nature 172:666-667, 1953.

9. Wilkins, M. H., Seeds, W. E., Stokes, A. R., and Wilson, H. R. Helical structure of crystalline deoxypentose nucleic acid. Nature 172:759-762, 1953.

10. Watson, J. D. and Crick, F. H. Genetical implications of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid. Nature 171:964-967, 1953.

11. Brenner, S., Jacob, F., and Meselson, M. An unstable intermediate carrying information from genes to ribosomes for protein synthesis. Nature 190:576-581, 1961.

12. Dounce, A. L. Duplicating mechanism for peptide chain and nucleic acid synthesis. Enzymologia 15:251-258, 1952.

13. Lehman, I. R., Bessman, M. J., Simms, E. S., and Kornberg, A. Enzymatic synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid. I. Preparation of substrates and partial purification of an enzyme from Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 233:163-170, 1958.

14. Kornberg, A. Biologic synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid. Science 131:1503-1508, 1960.

15. Nirenberg, M. W. and Matthaei, J. H. The dependence of cell-free protein synthesis in E. coli upon naturally occurring or synthetic polyribonucleotides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 47:1588-1602, 1961.

16. Matthaei, H. and Nirenberg, M. W. The dependence of cell-free protein synthesis in E. coli upon RNA prepared from ribosomes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 4:404-408, 1961.

17. Kornberg, R. D. and Lorch, Y. Chromatin structure and transcription. Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 8:563-587, 1992.

18. Kozak, M. Regulation of translation in eukaryotic systems. Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 8:197-225, 1992.

19. Coverley, D. and Laskey, R. A. Regulation of eukaryotic DNA replication. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 63:745-776, 1994.

20. Crick, F. H. C. On protein synthesis. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 12:548-555, 1958.

21. Crick, F. Central dogma of molecular biology. Nature 227:561-563, 1970.

22. Chargaff, E., Vischer, E., Doniger, R., Green, C., and Misani, F. The composition of the desoxypentose nucleic acids of thymus and spleen. J. Biol. Chem. 177:405-416, 1949.

23. Chargaff, E. Structure and function of nucleic acids as cell constituents. Fed. Proc. 10:654-659, 1951.

24. Crick, F. H. C. and Watson, J. D. The complementary structure of deoxyribonucleic acid. Proc. R. Soc. A 223:80-96, 1954.

25. Hunter, W. N., Brown, T., Anand, N. N., and Kennard. O. Structure of an adenine-cytosine base pair in DNA and its implications for mismatch repair. Nature 320:552-555, 1986.

26. Liu, K., Miles, H. T., Frazier, J., and Sasisekharan, V. A novel DNA duplex. A parallel-stranded DNA helix with Hoogsteen base pairing. Biochemistry 32:11,802-11,809, 1983.

27. Dickerson, R. E., Drew, H. R., Conner, B. N., Wing, R. M., Fratini, A. V., and Kopka, M. L. The anatomy of A-, B-, and Z-DNA. Science 216:475-485, 1982.

28. Collins, F. S. The human genome project and the future of medicine. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 882:42-55, 1999; discussion 56-65.

29. Futreal, P. A., Kasprzyk, A., Birney, E., Mullikin, J. C., Wooster, R., and Stratton, M. R. Cancer and genomics. Nature 409:850-852, 2001.

30. Jimenez-Sanchez, G., Childs, B., and Valle, D. Human disease genes. Nature 409:853-855, 2001.

31. Sanger, F. and Coulson, A. R. A rapid method for determining sequences in DNA by primed synthesis with DNA polymerase. J. Mol. Biol. 94:441-448, 1975.

32. Sanger, F., Nicklen, S., and Coulson, A. R. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:54635467, 1977.

33. Maxam, A. M. and Gilbert, W. A new method for sequencing DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:560-564, 1977.

34. Smith, L. M., Sanders, J. Z., Kaiser, R. J., et al. Fluorescence detection in automated DNA sequence analysis. Nature 321:674-679, 1986.

35. Ansorge, W., Sproat, B. S., Stegemann, J., and Schwager, C. A non-radioactive automated method for DNA sequence determination. J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 13:315-323, 1986.

36. Collins, F. and Galas, D. A new five-year plan for the U.S. Human Genome Project. Science 262:43-46, 1993.

37. Collins, F. S., Patrinos, A., Jordan, E., Chakravarti, A., Gesteland, R., and Walters, L. New goals for the U.S. Human Genome Project: 1998-2003. Science 282:682-689, 1998.

38. Hudson, T. J., Stein, L. D., Gerety, S. S., et al. An STS-based map of the human genome. Science 270:1945-1954, 1995.

39. Berry, R., Stevens, T. J., Walter, N. A., et al. Gene-based sequence-tagged-sites (STSs) as the basis for a human gene map. Nat. Genet. 10:415-423, 1995.

40. Gyapay, G., Schmitt, K., Fizames, C., et al. A radiation hybrid map of the human genome. Hum. Mol. Genet. 5:339-346, 1996.

41. Cheung, V. G., Nowak, N., Jang, W., et al. Integration of cytogenetic landmarks into the draft sequence of the human genome. Nature 409:953-958, 2001.

42. Olivier, M., Aggarwal, A., Allen, J., et al. A high-resolution radiation hybrid map of the human genome draft sequence. Science 291:1298-1302, 2001.

43. McPherson, J. D., Marra, M., Hillier, L., et al. A physical map of the human genome. Nature 409:934-941, 2001.

44. Adams, M. D., Dubnick, M., Kerlavage, A. R., et al. Sequence identification of 2,375 human brain genes. Nature 355:632-634, 1992.

45. Adams, M. D., Soares, M. B., Kerlavage, A. R., Fields, C., and Venter, J. C. Rapid cDNA sequencing (expressed sequence tags) from a directionally cloned human infant brain cDNA library. Nat. Genet. 4:373-380, 1993.

46. Adams, M. D., Kerlavage, A. R., Fields, C., and Venter, J. C. 3,400 new expressed sequence tags identify diversity of transcripts in human brain. Nat. Genet. 4:256-267, 1993.

47. Schuler, G. D., Boguski, M. S., Stewart, E. A., et al. A gene map of the human genome. Science 274:540-546, 1996.

48. Caron, H., van Schaik, B., van der Mee, M., et al. The human tran-scriptome map: clustering of highly expressed genes in chromosomal domains. Science 291:1289-1292, 2001.

49. Venter, J. C., Adams, M. D., Martin-Gallardo, A., McCombie, W. R., and Fields, C. Genome sequence analysis: scientific objectives and practical strategies. Trends Biotechnol. 10:8-11, 1992.

50. Venter, J. C., Smith, H. O., and Hood, L. A new strategy for genome sequencing. Nature 381:364-366, 1996.

51. Venter, J. C., Adams, M. D., Sutton, G. G., et al. Shotgun sequencing of the human genome. Science 280:1540-1542, 1998.

52. Lander, E. S., Linton, L. M., Birren, B., et al. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409:860-921, 2001.

53. Venter, J. C., Adams, M. D., Myers, E. W., et al. The sequence of the human genome. Science 291:1304-1351, 2001.

54. Nowak, R. Mining treasures from 'junk DNA.' Science 263:608-610, 1994.

55. Antequera, F. and Bird, A. Predicting the total number of human genes. Nat. Genet. 8:114, 1994.

56. Fields, C., Adams, M. D., White, O., and Venter, J. C. How many genes in the human genome? Nat. Genet. 7:345-346, 1994.

57. Ewing, B. and Green, P. Analysis of expressed sequence tags indicates 35,000 human genes. Nat. Genet. 25:232-234, 2000.

58. Roest Crollius, H., Jaillon, O., Bernot, A. Estimate of human gene number provided by genome-wide analysis using Tetraodon nigroviridis DNA sequence. Nat. Genet. 25:235-238, 2000.

59. Sachidanandam, R., Weissman, D., Schmidt, S. C., et al. A map of human genome sequence variation containing 1.42 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. Nature 409:928-933, 2001.

60. Collins, F. S., Green, E. D., Guttmacher, A. E., and Guyer, M. S. A vision for the future of genomics research. Nature 422:835-847, 2003.

61. Collins, F. S., Morgan, M. and Patrinos, A. The Human Genome Project: lessons from large-scale biology. Science 300:286-290, 2003.

62. Kavenoff, R., Klotz, L. C., and Zimm, B. H. One the nature of chromosome-sized DNA molecules. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 38:1-8, 1974.

63. Spector, D. L. The dynamics of chromosome organization and gene regulation. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72:573-608, 2003.

64. Mattick, J. S. Non-coding RNAs: the architects of eukaryotic complexity. EMBO Rep. 2:986-991, 2001.

65. Small, D., Nelkin, B., and Vogelstein, B. Nonrandom distribution of repeated DNA sequences with respect to supercoiled loops and the nuclear matrix. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79:5911-5915, 1982.

66. Tsongalis, G. J., Coleman, W. B., Smith, G. J., and Kaufman, D. G. Partial characterization of nuclear matrix attachment regions from human fibroblast DNA using Alu-polymerase chain reaction. Cancer Res. 52:3807-3810, 1992.

67. Jelinek, W. R. and Schmid, C. W. Repetitive sequences in eukary-otic DNA and their expression. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 51:813-844, 1982.

68. Schmid, C. W. and Jelinek, W. R. The Alu family of dispersed repetitive sequences. Science 216:1065-1070, 1958.

69. Meselson, M. and Stahl, F. W. The replication of DNA. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 23:9-12, 1958.

70. Meselson, M. and Stahl, F. W. The replication of DNA in Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 44:671-682, 1958.

71. Franceschini, P. Semiconservative DNA duplication in human chromosomes treated with BUDR and stained with acridine orange. Exp. Cell Res. 89:420-421, 1974.

72. Rude, J. M. and Friedberg, E. C. Semi-conservative deoxyribonu-cleic acid synthesis in unirradiated and ultraviolet-irradiated xero-derma pigmentosum and normal human skin fibroblasts. Mutat. Res. 42:433-442, 1977.

73. West, S. C. Enzymes and molecular mechanisms of genetic recombination. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 61:603-640, 1992.

74. Alberts, B. DNA replication and recombination. Nature 421:431-435, 2003.

75. Friedberg, E. C. Biological responses to DNA damage: a perspective in the new millennium. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 65:593-602, 2000.

76. Friedberg, E. C. DNA damage and repair. Nature 421:436-440, 2003.

77. Sancar, A. and Sancar G. B. (1988) DNA repair enzymes. Annu. Rev. Biochem, 57:29-67.

78. Friedberg, E. C., Walker, G. C., and Siede, W. DNA Repair and Mutagenesis, ASM, Washington, DC, pp. xvii, 1995.

79. Lewin, B. Units of transcription and translation: sequence components of heterogeneous nuclear RNA and messenger RNA. Cell 4:77-93, 1975.

80. Oren, M. The p53 cellular tumor antigen: gene structure, expression and protein properties. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 823:67-78, 1985.

81. Hollstein, M., Hergenhahn, M., Yang, Q., Bartsch, H., Wang, Z. Q., and Hainaut, P. New approaches to understanding p53 gene tumor mutation spectra. Mutat. Res. 431:199-209, 1999.

82. Bennett, W. P., Hussain, S. P., Vahakangas, K. H., Khan, M. A., Shields, P. G., and Harris, C. C. Molecular epidemiology of human cancer risk: gene-environment interactions and p53 mutation spectrum in human lung cancer. J. Pathol. 187:8-18, 1999.

83. Bookstein, R., Lee, E. Y., To, H., et al. Human retinoblastoma susceptibility gene: genomic organization and analysis of heterozygous intragenic deletion mutants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:22102214, 1988.

84. Lee, W. H., Bookstein, R., Hong, F., Young, L. J., Shew, J. Y., and Lee, E. Y. Human retinoblastoma susceptibility gene: cloning, identification, and sequence. Science 235:1394-1399, 1987.

85. Hong, F. D., Huang, H. J., To, H., et al. Structure of the human retinoblastoma gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:5502-5506, 1989.

86. Cech, T. R. Self-splicing of group I introns. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 59:543-568, 1990.

87. Jurica, M. S. and Moore, M. J. Pre-mRNA splicing: awash in a sea of proteins. Mol. Cell 12:5-14, 2003.

88. Black, D. L. Mechanisms of alternative pre-messenger RNA splicing. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 72:291-336, 2003.

89. Padgett, R. A., Grabowski, P. J., Konarska, M. M., Seiler, S., and Sharp, P. A. Splicing of messenger RNA precursors. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 55:1119-1150, 1986.

90. Sharp, P. A. Splicing of messenger RNA precursors. Science 235:766-771, 1987.

91. Powell, L. M., Wallis, S. C., Pease, R. J., Edwards, Y. H., Knott, T. J., and Scott, J. A novel form of tissue-specific RNA processing produces apolipoprotein-B48 in intestine. Cell 50:831-840, 1987.

92. Sollner-Webb, B. RNA editing. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 3:1056-1061, 1991.

93. Landweber, L. F. and Gilbert, W. RNA editing as a source of genetic variation. Nature 363:179-182, 1993.

94. Mattaj, I. W., Tollervey, D., and Seraphin, B. Small nuclear RNAs in messenger RNA and ribosomal RNA processing. FASEB J. 7:47-53, 1993.

95. Darnell, J. E., Philipson, L., Wall, R., and Adesnik, M. Polyadenylic acid sequences: role in conversion of nuclear RNA into messenger RNA. Science 174:507-510, 1971.

96. Blum, B., Bakalara, N., and Simpson, L. A model for RNA editing in kinetoplastid mitochondria: "guide" RNA molecules transcribed from maxicircle DNA provide the edited information. Cell 60:189-198, 1990.

97. Schimmel, P. and Ribas de Pouplana, L. Transfer RNA: from mini-helix to genetic code. Cell 81:983-986, 1995.

98. Crick, F. H. Codon-anticodon pairing: the wobble hypothesis. J. Mol. Biol. 19:548-555, 1966.

99. Noller, H. F. Structure of ribosomal RNA. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 53:119-162, 1984.

100. Shen, L. X., Cai, Z., and Tinoco, I., Jr. RNA structure at high resolution. FASEB J. 9:1023-1033, 1995.

101. Drake, J. W. and Baltz, R. H. The biochemistry of mutagenesis. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 45:11-37, 1976.

102. Lindahl, T. Instability and decay of the primary structure of DNA. Nature 362:709-715, 1993.

103. Ames, B. N., Shigenaga, M. K., and Gold, L. S. DNA lesions, inducible DNA repair, and cell division: three key factors in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. Environ. Health Perspect. 101(Suppl 5):35-44, 1993.

104. Cooper, D. N. and Youssoufian, H. The CpG dinucleotide and human genetic disease. Hum. Genet. 78:151-155, 1988.

105. Rideout, W. M., 3rd, Coetzee, G. A., Olumi, A. F., and Jones, P. A. 5-Methylcytosine as an endogenous mutagen in the human LDL receptor and p53 genes. Science 249:1288-1290,

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment