Info

Thr164Ile

Mnll

"Representative restriction endonuclease. Other appropriate ones could be used.

'No sub.= Polymorphism does not result in an alteration in gene expression; NA= not applicable.

"Representative restriction endonuclease. Other appropriate ones could be used.

'No sub.= Polymorphism does not result in an alteration in gene expression; NA= not applicable.

concentrations in plasma (13). The 5G allele frequency is about 48% among Caucasians and is slightly lower among Asians.

Studies on the role of PAI-1 polymorphism in ACS have been equivocal. Most studies, however, had low numbers (<1000) of enrolled subjects. In a meta-analysis, Iacoviello et al. combined results of 9 studies on 3641 CAD cases and controls. A positive association between the 4G/4G allele for CAD vs controls was obtained (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.07-1.58) (14). For most of the individual studies that were included, the odds ratio did not produce a statistically significant association for the 4G allele and CAD (i.e., a positive association observed only when studies were combined). For genetic risk assessment markers that might only have a borderline association, enrollment bias such as history of CAD might play a major role in the accuracy of results. For example, in an age-matched control population, how does the individual or investigator verify that silent ischemic disease had not occurred? As such, Ossei-Gerning et al. used coronary angiography as a criterion for CAD and found a positive association of the 4G genotype with the presence or absence of multivessel disease (15).

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