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aPhenotypic frequencies for the antigens shown are for the Caucasian population only. Significant differences in gene frequencies may be found in African and Asian populations.

aPhenotypic frequencies for the antigens shown are for the Caucasian population only. Significant differences in gene frequencies may be found in African and Asian populations.

newer approaches are now beginning to be used in clinical reference laboratories; however, many groups continue to use allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (ASPCR), a sensitive technique for the discrimination of alleles arising from base substitutions or deletions that does not necessitate postamplification restriction endonuclease digestion or hybridization. ASPCR is based on the principle that the specificity of PCR is conferred by the 3' end of the oligonucleotide primer, therefore, amplification efficiency is greatly reduced when a 3'-terminal mismatch exists between the oligonucleotide primer and the DNA target. Our laboratory has developed, validated, and clinically implemented a number of ASPCR assays that have been useful for identifying fetuses at risk for HDN, NAN, and NATP (5-14).

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