1. Baltimore D. Expression of animal virus genomes. Bacteriol Rev 1971;35:235-241.

2. Mayo MA, Pringle CR. Virus taxonomy-1997. J Gen Virol 1998;79 (Pt 4):649-657.

3. MHV van Regenmortel, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Carstens EB, Estes MK, Lemon SM, Maniloff J, Mayo MA, McGeoch DJ, Pringle CR, Wickner RB. Virus Taxonomy: The Classification and Nomenclature of Viruses. The Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Vol. Vllth report of the ICTV. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000.

4. Domingo E, Holland JJ. RNA virus mutations and fitness for survival. Annu Rev Microbiol 1997;51:151-178.

5. Nathanson N, Fine P. Virology. Poliomyelitis eradication—a dangerous endgame. Science 2002;296(5566):269-270.

6. Kew OM, Nottay BK, Hatch MH, et al. Multiple genetic changes can occur in the oral polio-vaccines upon replication in humans. J Gen Virol 1981;56(Pt 2):337-347.

7. Kew O, Morris-Glasgow V, Landaverde M, et al. Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Hispaniola associated with circulating type 1 vaccine-derived poliovirus. Science 2002;296(5566):356-359.

8. Morse SS. Emerging Viruses. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

9. Webster RG, Laver WG, Air GM, Schild GC. Molecular mechanisms of variation in influenza viruses. Nature 1982;296(5853):115-121.

10. Holmes EC, Twiddy SS. The origin, emergence and evolutionary genetics of dengue virus. Infect Genet Evol 2003;3(1):19-28.

11. Outbreak of Acute Illness-Southwestern United States, 1993. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1993;42(22):421-424.

12. Khan AS, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Lancet 1996; 347(9003):739-741.

13. Zaki SR, Greer PW, Coffield LM, et al. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Pathogenesis of an emerging infectious disease. Am J Pathol 1995;146(3):552-579.

14. Nichol ST, Spiropoulou CF, Morzunov S, et al. Genetic identification of a hantavirus associated with an outbreak of acute respiratory illness. Science 1993;262(5135):914-917.

15. Feldmann H, Sanchez A, Morzunov S, et al. Utilization of autopsy RNA for the synthesis of the nucleocapsid antigen of a newly recognized virus associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Virus Res 1993;30(3):351-367.

16. Mills JN, Yates TL, Ksiazek TG, et al. Long-term studies of hantavirus reservoir populations in the southwestern United States: rationale, potential, and methods. Emerg Infect Dis 1999;5(1):95-101.

17. Peters CJ. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Americas. In Scheld WM, Craig WA, and Hughes JM, eds. Emerging Infections 2. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 1998:17-64.

18. Morzunov SP, Rowe JE, Ksiazek TG, et al. Genetic analysis of the diversity and origin of han-taviruses in Peromyscus leucopus mice in North America. J Virol 1998;72(1):57-64.

19. Wells RM, Sosa Estani S, Yadon ZE, et al. An unusual hantavirus outbreak in southern Argentina: Person-to-person transmission? Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Study Group for Patagonia. Emerg Infect Dis 1997;3(2):171-174.

20. Plyusnin A, Morzunov SP. Virus evolution and genetic diversity of hantaviruses and their rodent hosts. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2001;256:47-75.

21. Rodriguez LL, Owens JH, Peters CJ, Nichol ST. Genetic reassortment among viruses causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Virology 1998;242(1):99-106.

22. Nichol ST. Genetic analysis of hantavirus and their host relationships. In Saluzzo JF, Dodet B, ed. Emergence and Control of Rodent-borne Viral Diseases. Annecy, France: Elsevier, 1998: 99-109.

23. Goh KJ, Tan CT, Chew NK, et al. Clinical features of Nipah virus encephalitis among pig farmers in Malaysia. N Engl J Med 2000;342(17):1229-1235.

24. Chua KB, Goh KJ, Wong KT, et al. Fatal encephalitis due to Nipah virus among pig-farmers in Malaysia. Lancet 1999;354(9186):1257-1259.

25. Chua KB, Bellini WJ, Rota PA, et al. Nipah virus: A recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Science 2000;288(5470):1432-1435.

26. Goldsmith CS, Whistler T, Rollin PE, et al. Elucidation of Nipah virus morphogenesis and replication using ultrastructural and molecular approaches. Virus Res 2003;92(1):89-98.

27. Field H, Young P, Yob JM, et al. The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes Infect 2001;3(4):307-314.

28. Daniels P, Ksiazek T, Eaton BT. Laboratory diagnosis of Nipah and Hendra virus infections. Microbes Infect 2001;3(4):289-295.

29. Harcourt BH, Tamin A, Ksiazek TG, et al. Molecular characterization of Nipah virus, a newly emergent paramyxovirus. Virology 2000;271(2):334-349.

30. Harcourt BH, Tamin A, Halpin K, et al. Molecular characterization of the polymerase gene and genomic termini of Nipah virus. Virology 2001;287(1):192-201.

31. Chua KB, Koh CL, Hooi PS, et al. Isolation of Nipah virus from Malaysian Island flying-foxes. Microbes Infect 2002;4(2):145-151.

32. Yob JM, Field H, Rashdi AM, et al. Nipah virus infection in bats (order Chiroptera) in peninsular Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis 2001;7(3):439-441.

33. Outbreak of West Nile-like viral encephalitis-New York, 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1999;48(38):845-849.

34. Petersen LR, Marfin AA, Gubler DJ. West Nile virus. JAMA 2003;290(4):524-528.

35. http://www.cdc.govncidod/dvbid/arbor/sle_qa.htm

36. Briese T, Jia XY, Huang C, et al. Identification of a Kunjin/West Nile-like flavivirus in brains of patients with New York encephalitis. Lancet 1999;354(9186):1261-1262.

37. Campbell GL, Marfin AA, Lanciotti RS, Gubler DJ. West Nile virus. Lancet Infect Dis 2002; 2(9):519-529.

38. Pealer LN, Marfin AA, Petersen LR, et al. Transmission of West Nile virus through blood transfusion in the United States in 2002. N Engl J Med 2003;349(13):1236-1245.

39. Detection of West Nile virus in blood donations—United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003;52(32):769-772.




43. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): Status of the outbreak and lessons for the immediate future. Geneva: World Health Organization. Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response, 2003. pp. 1-10.

44. Ksiazek TG, Erdman D, Goldsmith CS, et al. A novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. N Engl J Med 2003;348(20):1953-1966.

45. Rota PA, Oberste MS, Monroe SS, et al. Characterization of a novel coronavirus associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Science 2003;300(5624):1394-1399.

46. Fouchier RA, Kuiken T, Schutten M, et al. Aetiology: Koch's postulates fulfilled for SARS virus. Nature 2003;423(6937):240.

47. Guan Y, Zheng BJ, He YQ, et al. Isolation and characterization of viruses related to the SARS coronavirus from animals in Southern China. Science 2003;302(5643):276-278.

48. Update: multistate outbreak of monkeypox—Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin, 2003. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003;52(27):642-646.

49. Mwanbal PT, Tshioko KF, Moudi A, et al. Human monkeypox in Kasai Oriental, Zaire (1996-1997). Euro Surveill 1997;2(5):33-35.

50. Metzker ML, Mindell DP, Liu XM, et al. Molecular evidence of HIV-1 transmission in a criminal case. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002;99(22):14292-14297.

51. Swofford D. PAUP. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, 2001.

52. Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformat-ics 2001;17(8):754-755.

53. Cello J, Paul AV, Wimmer E. Chemical synthesis of poliovirus cDNA: Generation of infectious virus in the absence of natural template. Science 2002;297(5583):1016-1018.

54. Jackson RJ, Ramsay AJ, Christensen CD, et al. Expression of mouse interleukin-4 by a recombinant ectromelia virus suppresses cytolytic lymphocyte responses and overcomes genetic resistance to mousepox. J Virol 2001;75(3):1205-1210.

55. Wang D, Coscoy L, Zylberberg M, et al. Microarray-based detection and genotyping of viral pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2002;99(24):15687-15692.

56. Flint SJ, Enquist LW, Racaniello KR, Skalka AM. Principles of Virology: Molecular Biology, Pathogenesis, and Control of Animal Viruses. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press, 2004.

FIGURE 4.1 Schematic illustrating the replication strategies and means of gene expression for the various Baltimore classes. Reprinted with permission from Ref. (56).
f—I Positive Test ™ Results I I Test Samples 1—1 Submitted

I I No Reports figure 4.5 Spread of West Nile virus. From the initial outbreak in New York in 1999, the maps chart the rapid westward spread of WNV by showing the geographic distribution of human cases in years 2002-2004. Courtesy of the CDC.

3/24/04 Humans:

■ Positive Tost Results □ No Data figure 4.5 (Continued)

Swine Influenza

Swine Influenza

SWINE INFLUENZA frightening you? CONCERNED about the health implications? Coughs and Sneezes Spread Diseases! Stop The Swine Flu from Spreading. Follow the advice to keep your family and friends safe from this virus and not become another victim. These simple cost free guidelines will help you to protect yourself from the swine flu.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment