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descending manner, leading frequently to paralysis. If the illness is severe enough, the respiratory muscles are involved, leading to ventilatory failure and death unless intubation and mechanical ventilation are instituted. Intubation was required in 67% of type A botulism, 52% of type B botulism, and 39% of type E botulism.89 Patients may also have evidence of autonomic dysfunction including dry mouth, blurred vision, orthostatic hypotension, urinary retention, and constipation. Sensory abnormalities are usually absent, since only motor and autonomic nerves are affected. Similarly, mental function is usually not affected.

Paralysis from botulism can be quite long-lasting. Mechanical ventilation may be required for 2 to 8 weeks with foodborne botulism, with paralysis lasting as long as 7 months reported.88 Symptoms of cranial nerve dysfunction and mild autonomic dysfunction may persist for more than a year.90-92 In infants, hospital stay averages 1 month, with serotype A causing longer lasting disease (5.4-week average hospitalization) than serotype B (3.8-week average hospitalization).93 There is experimental evidence that neurotoxin catalytic activity persists at the nerve terminal, especially for serotypes A, B, and C, and that recovery initially results from the sprouting of new neuromuscular connections.94,95

Constipation Prescription

Constipation Prescription

Did you ever think feeling angry and irritable could be a symptom of constipation? A horrible fullness and pressing sharp pains against the bladders can’t help but affect your mood. Sometimes you just want everyone to leave you alone and sleep to escape the pain. It is virtually impossible to be constipated and keep a sunny disposition. Follow the steps in this guide to alleviate constipation and lead a happier healthy life.

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