B

B19, 45

Bacillus anthracis, 9, 19, 100, 103-104, 215-216, 217, 241, 242, 244, 245, 262f—263f, 344 case study, 357-364 derivations, 358/ Bacillus cereus, 100, 244 Bacillus globigii, 270f results using accelerator mass spectrometry, 286-290, 287/ Bacillus spp., 275/ Bacillus thuringiensis, 244, 264 Bacterial pathogens, 99-107. See also individual bacteria names DNA regions for identification, 99-102 multi-sequence typing (MLST), 100 multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA), 101-102 recently emerged pathogens, 101 16S rRNA gene sequences, 99-100 population genetics in a forensic context, 355-369

viral sequencing strategies, 328 websites, 103 Baghwan Sri Rajneesh, 3, 28 Baltimore, David, 57-58 BAMS. See Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry Basecalling, 325-327 Basidiomycota, 115, 120/ Bergalis v. Acer, 388

BFAC. See National Bioforensics Analysis Center

BIG-IV See Botulism immune globulin Bio-Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (BAMS), 277-279, 279/ for analysis of biological signatures, 259 analytical technique, 256t Biocrimes. See Bioterrorism Bioforensic Analysis Center, 34, 35 Bioforensics Demonstration and Application

Project, 15 Bioinformatics, 19-20, 198-199. See also Forensic science annotation, 330-332

for diagnostics versus traditional genomic annotation, 331-332 tools, 330-331 bacterial and viral sequencing strategies, 328

basecalling and accuracy, 325-327 comparative genomic tools, 336-338 comparative genomics, 332-333 definition, 313-314 diagnostics, 314-315 chemistries, 317-318 detection, 315-316 forensic, 321-323 nucleic acid detection, 316-317 protein detection, 319 protein forensic, 324 draft versus completed, 327 genome sequence assembly, 328-330, 329/ genome sequencing and analysis techniques, 324 high-affinity ligands, 320-321, 320/ large-scale, chip-based techniques, 323-324

methods for microbial detection and forensic diagnostic design, 313-353 monoclonal antibody, 319-320 multisequence and multigenome alignment, 333-336

pairwise comparison and alignment, 333 protein structure, 338-339 analysis tools, 341 modeling tools, 339-340, 340/ substring comparison, 336 visualization, 341-342 The Biological and Toxins Weapons

Convention (1972), 34, 187-188 Biologic toxins. See also individual disease names botulinum, 132-146 Clostridia per/ringens epsilon, 148-149 definition, 131

deliberate introduction, 159-163 forensic aspects, 131-156 forensic handling of threat samples,

213-231 ricin, 146-147

Staphylococcal enterotoxin B, 147-148 Biological manufacturing signatures, 251-294 analytical techniques, 256t antibodies, 255

characterization techniques, 258-260 definition, 252

detection methodologies advantages and disadvantages, 254t examples, 253 fingerprints, 257 future directions, 290-291 multidisciplinary approach, 257-258 Biological samples disposition, 222-223 export, 230

importation of etiologic agents, 228-229 integrity, 218-219

legal concerns for sample handling and data records, 219-223 packaging requirements, 228 safety issues, 223-225

biosafety level 1 (BSL-1), 224 biosafety level 2 (BSL-2), 224-225 biosafety level 3 (BSL-3), 225 biosafety level 4 (BSL-4), 225 shipping regulations, 225-230 test plans, 213-218

effects of field conditions on, 217 effects of field operations on, 216-217 flow of specimens in analytical laboratory, 214/

forensic handling, 213-231 standardized analytical assays, 215/ threat credibility, 217-218 transfer, 228, 229 transportation, 226-227 Biological warfare definition, 28 means of delivery, 208 Biological weapons offensive viewpoint, 31-32 safety precautions, 204 Biological Weapons Convention, 20 Biological weapons statute (2001), 188 Biosafety, 37-38 Biosafety level 1 (BSL-1), 224 Biosafety level 2 (BSL-2), 224-225 Biosafety level 3 (BSL-3), 225 Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4), 225 Biosecurity, 37-38

risk assessment, 38 Bioterrorism botulism, 141, 143 credibility, 217-218 definition, 2, 373 detection and identification, 10 educated public and, 21-23 infectious disease outbreak and, 160t information and databases, 10-11 quality assurance, 11 strain repository, 11 validation, 11 work experience and, 208 Bioweapons, 8-9

Bipolaris maydis (Southern corn leaf blight),

121, 123 BLAST, 340 Blue-tongue disease, 4 BoNT. See Botulinum neurotoxin Bornaviruses, 47, 50 Borrelia burgdorferi, 309-310 Botulinum antitoxin, 144-146 Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), 3, 5-6, 35, 132-146 bacteriology, 134

clinical history, symptoms, and findings,

138, 139t, 140 diagnosis, 143-144 differential diagnosis, 142t epidemiology, 140-143 exposure, 133-134

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) (continued) intentional, 133-134 laboratory findings, 143-144 neurotoxin structure and function,

135-138, 136/, 137f, 138f treatment, 144-146 types, 133 Botulinum toxoid vaccine, 145-146 Botulism. See Botulinum neurotoxin Botulism immune globulin (BIG-IV), 145-146 Bread molds (zygomycota), 114 Brown spot rice, 5 Brucella spp., 105, 218 Brucella abortus, 105 Brucella melitensis, 105 Brucella suis, 105 BSL. See Biosafety level Bunyaviridae (Rift valley fever), 4, 76, 308 Bunyaviruses, 47, 51

Burkholderia mallei (Glanders), 4, 36-37, 102, 105-106, 308 transmission, 159

uses, 4

Burkholderia pseudomallei, 105-106, 307-308 Burkitt's lymphoma, 46

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