• Invasive haemodynamic monitoring.

• Infusion of drugs that can cause peripheral phlebitis or tissue necrosis if tissue extravasation occurs (e.g. TPN, epinephrine, amiodarone).

• Rapid volume infusion. NB the rate of flow is inversely proportional to the length of the cannula.

• Emergency access when peripheral circulation is 'shut down'.

• Renal replacement therapy, plasmapheresis, exchange transfusion.

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