• Crystalloid fluids - to provide the daily requirements of water and electrolytes. They should be given to critically ill patients as a continuous background infusion to supplement fluids given during feeding, or to carry drugs.

• Higher concentration glucose infusions - to prevent hypoglycaemia.

• Potassium chloride - to supplement crystalloid fluids.

• Sodium bicarbonate - for correction of metabolic acidosis, urinary alkalinisation, etc

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