Specific treatment

• Hypoxaemia should be corrected with oxygen (FIO2 0.6-1.0).

• Intubation and ventilation if the airway is unprotected or Sp02<90%.

• Blood glucose should be measured urgently and hypoglycaemia corrected with IV 50 ml 50% glucose.

• Anticonvulsant levels should be corrected in known epileptics.

• Cerebral oedema should be managed with sedation, induced hypothermia, controlled hyperventilation and osmotic diuretics.

• In patients with a known tumour, arteritis or parasitic infection, high dose dexamethasone may be given.

• Thiamine 100 mg IV should be given to alcoholics.

• Consider surgery for space-occupying lesions, e.g. blood clot, tumour.

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