Common insults causing seizures include cerebral ischaemic damage, space occupying lesions, drugs or drug/alcohol withdrawal, metabolic encephalo-pathy (including hypoglycaemia), and neurosurgery. Anticonvulsants provide control of seizures but do not replace removal of the cause where this is possible.

Onset of seizure control may be delayed by up to 24h with phenytoin but a loading dose is usually given during the acute phase of seizures.

Magnesium sulphate is especially useful in eclamptic seizures (and in their prevention).

Phenytoin has a narrow therapeutic range and a non-linear relationship between dose and plasma levels. It is therefore essential to monitor plasma levels frequently. Enteral feeding should be stopped temporarily while oral phenytoin is administered. Intravenous use should only occur if the ECG is monitored continuously.

Carbamazepine has a wider therapeutic range than phenytoin and there is a linear relationship between dose and plasma levels. It is not, therefore, critical to monitor plasma levels frequently.

Plasma concentrations of sodium valproate are not related to effects so monitoring of plasma levels is not useful.


Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Alcoholism is something that can't be formed in easy terms. Alcoholism as a whole refers to the circumstance whereby there's an obsession in man to keep ingesting beverages with alcohol content which is injurious to health. The circumstance of alcoholism doesn't let the person addicted have any command over ingestion despite being cognizant of the damaging consequences ensuing from it.

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