• Hypoxaemia requiring high respiratory rate, effort and FIO2

• Hypercapnia in a fatiguing patient

• Weaning modality

• To avoid endotracheal intubation where desirable (e.g. severe chronic airflow limitation, immunosuppressed patients)

• Reduces work of breathing in patients with high PEEPi (e.g. asthma, chronic airflow limitation). Use with caution and monitor closely

• Physiotherapy technique for improving FRC

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