Endtidal PCO2

End-tidal PCO2 approximates PaCO2 in patients with normal lung function. In ICU patients pulmonary function is rarely normal, thus end-tidal PCO2 is a poor approximation of PaCO2. Large differences may represent an increased dead space to tidal volume ratio, poor pulmonary perfusion or intrapulmonary shunting. A progressive rise in end-tidal PCO2 may represent hypoventilation, airway obstruction or increased CO2 production due to increased metabolic rate. End-tidal PCO2 falls with hyperventilation and in low cardiac output states. It is absent with ventilator disconnection and during cardiac arrest but rises with effective CPR or restoration of a spontaneous circulation.

Anxiety and Panic Attacks

Anxiety and Panic Attacks

Suffering from Anxiety or Panic Attacks? Discover The Secrets to Stop Attacks in Their Tracks! Your heart is racing so fast and you don’t know why, at least not at first. Then your chest tightens and you feel like you are having a heart attack. All of a sudden, you start sweating and getting jittery.

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