Endtidal PCO2

End-tidal PCO2 approximates PaCO2 in patients with normal lung function. In ICU patients pulmonary function is rarely normal, thus end-tidal PCO2 is a poor approximation of PaCO2. Large differences may represent an increased dead space to tidal volume ratio, poor pulmonary perfusion or intrapulmonary shunting. A progressive rise in end-tidal PCO2 may represent hypoventilation, airway obstruction or increased CO2 production due to increased metabolic rate. End-tidal PCO2 falls with hyperventilation and in low cardiac output states. It is absent with ventilator disconnection and during cardiac arrest but rises with effective CPR or restoration of a spontaneous circulation.

Eliminating Stress and Anxiety From Your Life

Eliminating Stress and Anxiety From Your Life

It seems like you hear it all the time from nearly every one you know I'm SO stressed out!? Pressures abound in this world today. Those pressures cause stress and anxiety, and often we are ill-equipped to deal with those stressors that trigger anxiety and other feelings that can make us sick. Literally, sick.

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