Endotracheal intubation Indications

An artificial airway is necessary in the following circumstances:

• Apnoea — Provision of mechanical ventilation, e.g. unconsciousness, severe respiratory muscle weakness, self-poisoning

• Respiratory failure — Provision of mechanical ventilation, e.g. ARDS, pneumonia

• Airway protection — Unconsciousness, trauma, aspiration risk, poisoning

• Airway obstruction — Maintain airway patency, e.g. trauma, laryngeal oedema, tumour, burns

• Haemodynamic instability — Facilitate mechanical ventilation, e.g. shock, cardiac arrest

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