• Tube placement: tracheobronchial intubation, nasopharyngeal perforation, intracranial penetration (basal skull fracture), oesophageal perforation

• Pulmonary aspiration

• Nausea and vomiting

• Abdominal distension is occasionally reported with features including a tender, distended abdomen and an increasing metabolic acidosis. Laparotomy and bowel resection may be necessary in severe cases

• Diarrhoea: large volume, bolus feeding, high osmolality, infection, lactose intolerance, antibiotic therapy, high fat content

• Constipation

• Metabolic: dehydration, hyperglycaemia, electrolyte imbalance


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