Complica tions

The main early complication is haemorrhage from vessels anterior to the trachea. This is usually controlled with direct pressure or, occasionally, sutures. Bleeding into the trachea may result in clot obstruction of the airway; endotracheal suction is usually effective. Paratracheal placement should be rare but promptly recognised by inability to ventilate the lungs. Later complications include tracheostomy displacement, stomal infection and tracheal stenosis. Stenosis is often related to low grade infection and is claimed to be more common with open tracheotomy. Rare complications include tracheo-oesophageal fistula due to trauma or pressure necrosis of the posterior tracheal wall, or erosion through the lateral tracheal wall into a blood vessel.

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