Causes

• Hyperthermia may be an extreme form of pyrogen-induced fever associated with infection, inflammation, neoplasm or cerebrovascular accident.

• Heat stroke is associated with severe exercise in high environmental temperatures and humidity. There may be excess clothing or hypovolaemia reducing the body's ability to dissipate heat production.

• Malignant hyperthermia is a drug-induced myopathy associated with a hereditary calcium transfer defect in patients receiving volatile anaesthetics, muscle relaxants, antidepressants, alcohol or Ecstasy. Heat production is increased by muscle catabolism, spasm and peripheral vasoconstriction.

• The neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a drug-induced hyperthermic syndrome secondary to phenothiazines or butyrophenones. It is associated with muscle rigidity, akinesia, impaired consciousness and autonomic dysfunction and continues for 1-2 weeks.

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