Causes

• Inadequate intake

• Gastrointestinal losses (e.g. vomiting, diarrhoea, fistula losses)

• Renal losses (e.g. diabetic ketoacidosis, Conn's syndrome, secondary hyperaldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, renal tubular acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesaemia, drugs including diuretics, steroids, theophyllines)

• Haemofiltration losses

• Potassium transfer into cells (e.g. acute alkalosis, glucose infusion, insulin treatment, familial periodic paralysis)

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