• Systemic inflammation results in margination and aggregation of neutrophils in vital organs, e.g. lung, liver, gut. Predominantly seen in the first 24 h after severe infection or trauma, it is often a precursor of multiple organ dysfunction

• Haemopoietic diseases, e.g. leukaemia, lymphoma, myeloma or as a consequence of chemotherapy or radiation

• Nutritional deficiencies, e.g. folate, vitamin B12, malnutrition

• Adverse drug reaction, e.g. carbimazole, sulphonamides

• Part of aplastic anaemia, e.g. idiopathic, drugs, infection

• Specific infections, e.g. brucellosis, typhoid, viral, protozoal

• Hypersplenism

• Antineutrophil antibodies, e.g. systemic lupus erythematosis

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