Causes

• Blood transfusion reactions

• Haemolytic uraemic syndrome (microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia)

• Trauma (cardiac valve prosthesis)

• Sickle cell haemolytic crisis

• Drugs — e.g. high-dose penicillin, methyl dopa

• Autoimmune (cold- or warm antibody-mediated) — may be idiopathic or secondary, e.g. lymphoma, SLE, mycoplasma

• Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency—oxidative crises occur following ingestion of fava beans, primaquine, sulphonamides leading to rapid onset anaemia and jaundice

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