Massive haemoptysis

• Disruption of a bronchial artery by acute inflammation or invasion (e.g. pulmonary neoplasm, trauma, cavitating TB, bronchiectasis, lung abscess and aspergilloma).

• Rupture of arteriovenous malformations and bronchovascular fistulae.

• Pulmonary infarction secondary to prolonged pulmonary artery catheter wedging or pulmonary artery rupture.

Minor haemoptysis

• Intrapulmonary inflammation or infarction (e.g. pulmonary embolus)

• Endotracheal tube trauma (e.g. mucosal erosion, balloon necrosis, trauma from the tube tip, trauma to a tracheostomy stoma, trauma from suction catheters).

• Tissue breakdown in critically ill patients (e.g. tissue hypoperfusion, coagulopathy, poor nutritional state, sepsis and hypoxaemia.)

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